Evaluating Clients, Lab Testing, Amino Acids,
Electrolytes and Advanced Detoxification
Mark Schauss, MBA, DB
• Began researching the field of nutritional and
complementary medicine in 1983.
• In 1985, developed a novel way to analyze blood tests.
• In 1995 was awarded a patent on disease patterning.
• In 1996 was awarded a second patent relating to patterning
and decision making in analyzing lab tests.
• Taught classes in how to conduct drug and research trials to
pharmaceutical companies and medical devise makers.
• Have lectured on five continents on environmental toxicity,
cognitive function, nutritional supplements and lab testing.
• Things got personal when my daughter Tasya developed
epilepsy at the age of three.
• The neurologist gave us a dire prognosis – she would like
not live past her 12th birthday as the type of disorder was
• At one point she would have hundreds of seizures a day.
• One seizure when she was eight she had an allergic
reaction to the drug Ativan and had a six hour seizure.
• Years later we discovered why she reacted so violently to
that particular drug and many others.
• Approximately 50% of all drugs and many herbs are
metabolized through the cytochrome p450 enzyme pathway
• People with abnormalities within this pathway will get a
negative side effect when taking any of these drugs or
• Some of the side effects can be life threatening and some
can be life altering.
• Only through genetic testing can we determine if we have
this abnormality. More on this later.
Before we get started
• This presentation will be available on my website –
• Many of the presentations that I have made over the past 20
years are there as well.
• You are free to use them if you are doing a presentation, just
make sure you acknowledge where you got the information.
• My objective is to not only teach you but also to empower
you to find the research on your own.
• Always be skeptical of whatever a lecturer tells you.
• Challenge the ideas put forth.
• Double check the references.
• Keep an open mind.
• When in doubt, go back to the basics.
Fabulous place to find out what nutrients are in foods.
• The most important lesson I ever learned was, when
presented with a difficult case, go back to the most basic
level of their chemistry and start there.
• Case #1 – 12 year old girl has braces put on and within 3
days begins to have blank out seizures.
• Guesses on what happened here?
• The brain, central nervous system, cardiovascular system
are all electrically charged.
• Electrolytes are one of the most fundamental issues to be
addressed for all conditions.
• Balancing a persons electrolytes is critical.
• We will be discussing this in detail down the road.
• The electrical system in the human body is a circulatory
system just the same as blood and lymphatic.
• The seminal work on the subject was Dr. Bjorn E. W.
Nordenstrom called Biologically Closed Electric Circuits:
Clinical, Experimental and Theoretical Evidence for an
Additional Circulatory System.
• When thinking about how important electrolytes are, think
where life began on earth – the oceans.
• It is the base from which everything else stands on.
• This is your foundation and where you need to address with
yourself and all of your clients.
• So what is the definition of an electrolyte?
• It is a fluid that can conduct electricity.
• Your blood does this quite effectively.
• Electrolyte salts need to be in balance for optimal
performance and health.
• Not only that but your brain depends on electrolytes to
• Basically, your thoughts are dependent on the sodium –
• A great video on this is available at
• The main electrolyte salts are sodium, potassium, calcium,
magnesium, phosphorus, chlorides, and bicarbonates.
• The balance of sodium and potassium are two of the more
critical when it comes to performance and health.
• There can be no contraction without sodium and no
relaxation without potassium.
• When evaluating a client, you can look at them and see if
they are sodium or potassium imbalanced.
• Left side is sodium – Right side is potassium
• Bicep is sodium – Triceps are potassium
• Hamstrings are sodium – Quads are potassium
• Blood pressure can be manipulated by adjusting ones
• Sodium controls the systolic (upper number) or the
contraction phase of the heart.
• Potassium controls the diastolic (lower number) or the
relaxation phase (filling) of the heart.
• An optimal blood pressure for a normal person should have
a separation of about 50 points.
• Chlorides and bicarbonates will spread the numbers apart.
• Sulfates will tighten the numbers.
• In brain chemistry, electrolytes play an important role in
• In anyone with depression, the first go to would be
balancing ones electrolytes especially potassium.
• In a standard blood test, if the potassium level is below 4.0
mE/q, chances are the person suffers some form of
• Anorexia is a disorder with extreme potassium deficiency.
• There is a change in perception of themselves due to it.
• All food contains potassium so the body doesn’t retain it
• When an anorexic or bulimic continues to avoid food, they
continue the depletion of potassium.
• Zinc, helps to improve appetite in anorexics but potassium
must be added as well otherwise the mental perception
problem will persist.
• Caution, excessive potassium can cause arrhythmias.
• There must be adequate sodium to potassium to prevent
• This is why the best source of electrolytes is a balanced
• The balancing of chlorides and bicarbonates are critical for
performance and health.
• They have an inverse relationship, when one goes up the
other goes down.
• This relationship is important in hydrochloric acid
• If the bicarbonates go down HCl production is inhibited.
• Many autistic children have low HCl as well as many with
mental disorders like depression.
• Increasing bicarbonate intake (Potassium and Sodium
Bicarb) quite often improves digestion better than taking
• Bicarbonates are important buffers.
• Very few electrolyte formulas contain bicarbs.
• Adequate bicarbonate intake during workouts or exercise
can help reduce the levels of lactic acid in the muscles.
• Reduced levels of lactic acid improves performance and
decreases the risk of injury.
• It also greatly improves the recovery cycle.
• But caution here, balance of electrolytes is key.
• Calcium is important to control both sodium and potassium.
• Potassium drives the calcium into the cells, sodium drives
calcium into the bones.
• Imbalances in sodium and potassium may be involved in
• Vinegar is effective at lowering blood pressure especially
• Vinegar, aka acetic acid binds with sodium to create sodium
acetate which is flushed out of the kidneys.
• Vinegar also is helpful in softening calcium.
• Vinegar is also helpful in solubalizing fats in the blood
• Magnesium is involved in over 300 enzymatic reactions.
• It is the number one mineral deficiency in the western diet.
• If every man in the U.S. would take a 200 mg capsule of
magnesium every day, we would lower the risk of a cardiac
event by 80%.
• It would save the health care system around $500 billion
over a 20 year period.
• Now for my shameless plug.
• Next to electrolytes, amino acids are one of the most critical
and fundamental issues to address when looking at
improving performance and health.
• Back to the ocean.
• Amino acids/proteins in an electrolyte soup.
• Improving one or the other is helpful but working on the two
together is greater than their sum.
• By manipulating individual amino acids, you can target
health issues very effectively especially cognitive function.
• Branch-Chained Amino Acids (BCAA’s)
• Leucine, Isoleucine and Valine
• Leucine accounts for eight percent of the total amino acids
in the body.
• It is fourth in concentration behind glutamic acid, aspartic
acid and lysine in muscle tissue.
• It also is the only amino acid that can substitute for glucose
in a fasting state.
• It can also cause problems when used excessively.
• Dr. Abram Hoffer found that excessive intake of leucine can
increase the loss of niacin unless there is adequate
• BCAA’s need adequate vitamin B6 to be properly
• In high-dose BCAA supplementation amongst athletes and
trainers, I consistently see excessive levels of BCAA’s in
• There is typically an inadequate intake of B-vitamins.
• Because they are water soluble and not retained, daily
intake proportional to BCAA intake is critical.
• There is a concern in some individuals that excessive
protein intake can be problematic.
• One of the major issues is hyperammonemia.
• Typically it is due to a problem with the Urea Cycle.
• Some of the symptoms of hyperammonemia is irritability,
bladder control, anger management, seizures, brain fog and
• Case Study #2 – Young 14 year old boy who wets his bed.
• In cases of hyperammonemia
• 500 mgs of Arginine along with electrolytes with
• If that doesn’t work than try 500 mgs of Ornithine.
• 150 mgs of alpha keto glutarate is helpful as well.
• Carnitine is an important and often times overlooked
• The problem I see is the use of excessively high doses.
• According to both the Stefan Siebricht and the late Robert
Crayhon you begin to have diminishing returns over 3.5
• I also feel that excessive amounts over 10 grams can do
damage to the heart over although this is an opinion of
• I do recommend 250 mgs of carnitine for every gram of fish
oils to prevent excessive fatty acid oxidation.
• Taurine is a conditionally essential amino acid.
• It is found in meats but not in significant quantities except for
• It is used extensively in Japan in heart disease.
• 5 grams per day for three weeks is a typical treatment.
• It is helpful for use with people with arrhythmias as it
protects against potassium loss within heart cells.
• It is also very helpful in combating the effects of chlorine for
• Three grams daily is helpful
• Glycine is my favorite amino acid.
• It is the most versatile and has an amazing array of uses.
• Humans have ingested glycine for millennium in the form of
• The collagen in the bone is about 40-50% glycine.
• It is an important base amino acid that while easily made
from threonine, it is critical in so many areas that regular
supplementation is important in maintaining health and
Amino Acids and
• In today’s petrochemically toxic world regular glycine intake
is a must.
• It has a great affinity for the benzoate molecule.
• During phase I detoxification, many petrochemicals are
transformed into a more toxic intermediary.
• Benzoate + Glycine = Hippurate
• Toluene and Xylene become 2- and 3-methylbenzoate
• These compounds are extremely neurologically toxic.
• Adding 3 grams of glycine daily is a must.
• You can measure 2- and 3-methyhippurate in urine.
• In the elderly, protein intake is essential but often times not
• A collagen based amino acid supplement with essential cofactors is helpful in keeping them physically and cognitively
• In studies done in Scandinavia showed that those elderly
people who ate the most protein and had osteoporosis had
the far fewer broken bones than those on low protein diets.
• Collagen from protein made their bones pliable and far less
• Environmental toxicity is the number one health problem in
the world today.
• Detoxification should no longer be viewed as a treatment,
an event or something to be done in response to a health
issue, it is something to be done as part of a healthy
• According to the President’s Council on Cancer, 80% of all
cancers are caused by environmental toxicity.
• Cancer is not caused by bad genes but by the toxins that
switch them on.
• Mercury detoxification protocols are very controversial.
• There are numerous dangerous detox protocols out there.
• In my opinion, using a hybrid protocol based on the works of
Dr. Andrew Cutler and Dr. Christopher Shade give you the
best success with the least side effects.
• Neither chlorella nor cilantro are effective chelators of
• DMSA, DMPS and alpha lipoic acid are very effective
chelators but must be used within very tight parameters.
• DMSA and ALA must be dosed at ¼ to ½ mg per kilogram of
body weight every 4 hours for 3 days.
• Then take either 4 days or 11 days off and replete with trace
• This is known as a cycle.
• Each cycle will remove approximately 1/2 % of the body’s
burden of mercury.
• DMPS must be dosed at ¼ to ½ mg per kilogram of body
weight every 8 hours for 3 days.
• DO NOT USE MORE!!!
• Case study #3 – 45 year old man chelating mercury
• Lesson learned.
• More is not better.
• Faster is not better.
• To enhance mercury detoxification make sure that transport
proteins are on board.
• Improve glutathione levels.
• Liposomal glutathione is helpful.
• Improving natural glutathione production is best.
Detoxification and Lab
• What is glutathione?
• Glycine, glutamic acid and cysteine
• How to determine whether glutathione production is
• Organic Acid in Urine testing is crucial.
• Testing is your only way to truly evaluate the health status of
yourself and your client.
• The Organic Acid test is a functional test that takes into
account genetic abnormalities and your present day
stresses and environmental exposures.
• So what are Organic Acids?
• Here is the description from the highly recommended book,
Laboratory Evaluations for Integrative and Functional
Medicine, 2nd Edition by Drs. Lord and Bralley.
• “Instead of directly measuring nutrient concentrations,
abnormal concentrations of organic acids provide functional
markers for the metabolic effects of micronutrient
inadequacies, toxic exposure, neuroendocrine activity, and
intestinal bacterial overgrowth. As such, organic acid testing
can indicate the functional need for essential or conditionally
essential nutrients, diet modification, antioxidant protection
detoxification and other therapies.”
• When an organic acid is elevated it means that a metabolic
process has not been completed and the acid has spilled
into the urine which we measure.
• Let’s look at specific organic acids and what they tell us.
• Methylmalonate is formed in the breakdown of BCAA’s,
methionine, and threonine and is dependent on Vitamin
• It is a vastly superior marker to B12 deficiency than serum
• 12% of elderly people are known to have profound B12
deficiencies in the U.S.
• Sub-clinical deficiencies are seen with elevated
• Kynurenate and Xanthurenate are both markers for B6
• I see these markers being elevated in many elite athletes
and trainers who supplement regularly with BCAA’s.
• Kynurenate is involved in neurotransmitter metabolism and
• Xanthurenate is involved in tryptophan metabolism.
• α-Ketoisovalerate (valine), α-Ketoisocaproate (leucine), and
β-Ketoisovalerate (isoleucine) are markers for the
incomplete metabolism of branch chained amino acids.
• Again, we commonly see these elevated in people who
supplement with BCAA’s
• These are markers for general B-complex nutrient
• If very elevated, it is appropriate to add additional thiamin
• Catecholamines, epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine
(noradrenaline), and dopamine are produced from tyrosine.
• Elevations in vanilmandilate and homovanilate are markers
for stress and toxicity.
• Extreme elevations are markers for tumor growth.
• High levels of homovanilate may be due to heavy metals
such as lead, mercury, cadmium or arsenic.
• High levels of vanilmandilate may be caused by
• Low levels are associated with depression, sleep
disturbances, anxiety and fatigue.
• 5-Hydroxyindoleacetate (5-HIAA) is a breakdown of
• Elevations are seen with 5-HTP supplementation and the
use of SSRI’s, some more than others.
• If neither of these are the case, suspect inflammatory gut
reactions as a primary source of serotonin are the
argentaffin cells found in the intestines.
• Extreme elevations are sometimes found in cancerous
• Phenylacetate, 3-Indolacetate, phenylproprionate,
tricarballylate, D-Lactate and D-Arabinitol are all markers of
• While not specific as to the type of organism (except DArabinitol which is a marker for yeast), they can give us a
clue as to the levels of dysbiosis in the gut.
• I have found the herbal combination product Biocidin® to be
highly effective as a antimicrobial.
• If you need to determine the species of bug infecting
someone, I highly recommend Doctor’s Data as they use a
technique known as MALDI-TOF
• There is a lab in Kansas that claims that arabinose is the
way to test for yeast and not D-arabinitol.
• They are dead wrong.
• Arabinose is an five pentose sugar that feeds candida and is
used as a medium to grow bacteria.
• It is not a by-product of yeast metabolism, D-arabinitol is.
• Measuring arabinose in the urine and then treating someone
for candida is wrong and potentially harmful.
• As you know, environmental toxicity is the leading cause of
chronic health issues from Type II Diabetes, to cancer,
neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular disease.
• Testing for these toxins is critical.
• Knowing what you are being exposed to and whether you
are a good detoxifier is important in achieving optimal
performance and health.
• Measuring toxins in the blood or in fat tissue is a thing of the
• You have them in you, are you getting rid of them is the
• An Environmental Pollutants Panel from U.S. Biotek is an
easy to use urine test that can be done at the same time as
an organic acid test.
• It requires first morning urine.
• It looks at the following toxins:
Xylene and Styrene
Toluene and Benzene
Phthalates and Parabens
• It can also tell whether your phase I or II are operating
• I believe that environmental toxicity is the leading cause of
• A normal mammalian response to being exposed to toxins is
to lower its metabolism.
• This response is to allow the body to deal with the toxins in
a safe manner.
• If this didn’t happen, the toxin would cause more havoc.
• This lowering of metabolism decreases the persons body
temperature and leads to hypothyroidism.
• Trying to stimulate the thyroid in a hypothyroid patient
before detoxifying them is unnatural and potentially harmful.
• Case #4 – Texas thyroid clinic.
• Toxins also disrupt intercellular energy production.
• This affects resting metabolism.
• A mere 7% lowering in resting metabolism would cause a
weight gain 13.66 pounds per year.
• Multiply that by 10 and you see how someone could
become obese without eating poorly.
• Test for toxicity, then work on the thyroid. Never the other
• Styrene exposure is universal.
• Everyone who has been tested in the U.S. over the past 40
years has it in their blood.
• This means that we should see an excretion pattern of
• If not, the individual is a non-excretor and needs added help
• The markers for this are mandelate and phenylglyoxalate.
• Toluene is the anti-knock agent used in gasoline that
• It is found in everything from paints, silicone sealants, ink,
rubber, lacquers, and disinfectants.
• It is mildly carcinogenic but its main effect are causing
fatigue and brain fog.
• It along with xylene are easily detoxified with glycine.
• The metabolites that indicate toluene and xylene exposure
are 2- and 3-methylhippurate.
• Interesting side note.
• Many of the toxins we are talking about have bacteria or
funguses that feed off of them.
• Xylene spills are treated with bacteria that are also found in
• Candida has an affinity for mercury.
• Often times killing the bacterial or funguses may make the
toxins more dangerous.
• Detoxification of an individual with dysbiosis should be done
• Phthalates were initially developed by the US military in the
1960’s to be used in chemical warfare.
• It was known that exposure to it would lower testosterone
levels in men and would make them more sterile.
• It was abandoned because it posed a danger to American
soldiers as well.
• The actual compound is now available as a consumer
• It is known as new car smell.
Phthalates effects on testosterone are epidemic.
Axe body spray uses 5 different types of phthalates.
Case study #5 -18 year old boy with erectile dysfunction.
Case study #6 – Elderly couple with extreme levels of
• Phthalates also chelate magnesium and zinc.
• Increasing glutathione production will help the body excrete
• Avoiding exposure is the number one way to help reduce
the effect of phthalates on ones health.
• Benzene is a highly carcinogenic petrochemical that is
found in diesel fuel.
• The fumes from vehicles that use diesel is a major source of
• This is why people who run or jog on major roads are doing
more damage to their health than good.
• When detoxifying benzene it is critical that you deal with any
issues of gut dysbiosis first.
• Not doing so may increase the carcinogenicity of the
• Parabens are used as an anti-bacterial agent in cosmetics
and supplements. Also some processed foods contain it as
• According to the FDA parabens are considered a GRAS
• Studies have shown that women with breast cancer have
higher levels of parabens in their tissue than women without
• Causation has not been proven but there have been
suggestions that because parabens are estrogenic, that
may be why it increases the risk of cancer.
Heavy metals are another major issue to address.
The best and easiest way to test is through hair.
My suggestion is Doctor’s Data.
Doing a challenge test has the potential of causing harsh
side effects, some can be debilitating.
• Case study #7 – Mother and daughter post challenge.
• Problem with challenge test is it doesn’t truly assess the
body burden of heavy metals.
• When it comes to heavy metal testing and interpretation of
hair elements tests from Doctor’s Data you can do no better
than reading Dr. Andrew Cutler’s two books.
• Amalgam Illness: Diagnosis and Treatment
• Also, Hair Test Interpretation: Finding Hidden Toxicities
• Another test to look at is the QS Mercury Tri-Test from Quick
Silver Scientific (Dr. Christoper Shade).
• It is the only test that measure both exposures and excretion
abilities for each of the two forms of mercury, inorganic
(amalgams) and methylmercury (seafood consumption)
There are a number of different ways to test hormones.
Saliva and blood are the most common.
There are issues with both.
Accuracy and reproducibility are key problems.
When it comes to hormones like cortisol, saliva and blood
are accurate and reproducible.
• If you are looking at hormones like estradiol, they can vary
by 30-40% with the same sample.
• Urine hormones, done right are the best.
• The best lab in my opinion to do urinary hormone testing is
Precision Analytical out of McMinnville, Oregon.
• The owner, Mark Newman is one of the finest lab
technicians in the country.
• He developed something known as DUTCH.
• Dried Urine Test for Comprehensive Hormones
• It uses 4 dry strips which you dip in collected urine at
different times of the day.
• That way it can give you diurnal readings of cortisol and
cortisone, its metabolite.
• With many labs, +/-20-30% is not that uncommon for poorly
performing tests and 10-15% is probably average for decent
tests. This is especially true with many saliva testing labs.
• To see how much better DUTCH is over other methods
especially if someone is taking supplemental hormones go
to this link http://hormones4health.com/pdf/Testing_Matrix_Precision_A
• Their website is www.precisionhormones.com
How to get testing done
• My company Lab Interpretation LLC has been helping
trainers get lab testing done for over 3 years.
• Sign up by calling our offices at 775-851-3337 and talk to
my wife Hillary.
• She will set everything up so that the testing is easy.
• When you have the tests done through us you will get a
complete Lab Assist report and it includes a short consult
with me personally.
Dr. Mark Schauss, DB
Lab Interpretation, LLC