macromolecules

download report

Transcript macromolecules

Macromolecules (Carbohydrates,
Proteins, Lipids, Nucleic Acids)
By – Nevin Varghese
Victor Veras
Dapo Adegbile
Carbohydrates
Purpose – used by cells to provide energy
Structure – Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and
oxygen with a ratio of about 2 hydrogen atoms
and one oxygen atom for every carbon atom
Lipids
Purpose – Cells use lipids for energy storage,
insulation, and protective coverings
Structure – Made mostly of carbon, hydrogen, a
small amount of oxygen and fatty acids. Also are
attached with single bonds and double bonds
depending on the lipid
Lipids usually have 2 hydrophilic heads
and 2 hydrophobic tails
Proteins
Purpose – Proteins provide
structure for tissues and
organs. They also carry
out metabolism
Structure – Composed of
carbon, hydrogen,
oxygen, nitrogen, and
sometimes sulfur. They
are built from amino
acids connected from
peptide bonds.
Nucleic Acids
Purpose – DNA and RNA are both
nucleic acids that are necessary
for life
Structure – Made up of subunits
named Nucleotides.
Nucleotides consist of carbon,
hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and
phosphorus atoms. Nucleic
acids are mainly made up of 3
groups called the Phosphate,
Sugar and Nitrogenous base.
Elements Found in Each
Macromolecule
Carbohydrates
• Carbohydrates- Carbon (C) Hydrogen (H) &
Oxygen (O)
Lipids
• Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), & Oxygen (O)
Proteins
• Carbon (C), Nitrogen (N), Oxygen (O), &
Hydrogen (H).
Nucleic Acids
• Carbon (C) , Hydrogen (H) , Nitrogen (N),
Oxygen (O), & Phosphorus (P)
Macromolecules
• Carbohydrates
– Monomers
• Carbon
• Hydrogen
• Oxygen
– Ratio of about 2 hydrogen
atoms & 1 oxygen atom for
every carbon atom
– Types
• Monosaccharide: simple sugar
• Disaccharide: two-sugar
carbohydrate
• Polysaccharides: polymers
composed of many
monosaccharide subunits
• Lipids
• Carbon
• Hydrogen
• Small amounts of oxygen
– Types
•
•
•
•
Fats
Oils
Waxes
Steroids
• Proteins
– Monomers
•
•
•
•
•
•
Amino acids
Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Sometimes Sulfur
– Types
• Enzymes
• Nucleic Acids
– Monomers
• Nucleotides
–
–
–
–
–
Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Phosphorous
• Arranged in 3 groups
– Nitrogenous base
– Simple sugar
– Phosphate group
• Types
– DNA
» Deoxyribonucleic acid
Enzymes
• Protein that changes the rate of a chemical reaction
– Purpose
• Enzymes are involved in nearly all metabolic processes
• They speed the reactions in digestion of food
– Function
• Has area called active site that fits the shape of the substrate
• When they bind, the enzyme alters its shape
• When they react, the enzyme changes the rate of a reaction but does
not change the amount of the end product.
• http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/2
6766.php
http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/18/science/18obmouse.html?scp=2&sq=proteins&st=cse
What foods each are found in
Lipids – found in foods that have fats –
Carbohydrates – 2 types of carbohydrates – sugars and
starches. Foods with sugars and starches –
Nucleic Acids – fruits, vegetables and meats
contain nucleic acids
Proteins – meats –