objective 3 - protein synthesis

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Transcript objective 3 - protein synthesis

 Phosphate
 Deoxyribose
 Adenine
 Guanine
 Thymine
 Cytosine
 One
base pair
 One nucleotide
You should be able to:
•
•
•
Identify or define (1-2)
Describe (3-8)
Explain and discuss (58)
•
Protein synthesis
 ribosome
 ribonucleic
acid (RNA)
 cytoplasm
 gene
 amino
acid
 protein
 Deoxyribonucleic acid
 uracil
 What
are genes?
• Segments of DNA
• Each gene is one recipe for how to make one protein
• The order of the nitrogen bases determines what
protein is made
https://www.23andme.com/gen101/genes/ (*genetics 101)
 One
nitrogen base
.
substitution = sickleshaped red blood cells
=sickle cell disease
Chromosome 1 has the most genes (2968), the Y
chromosome has the fewest (231).
Genes on chromosome 5 determine if you will have
dimples
Genes on chromosomes 19 and 15 determine your eye
color
http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/chromosomes
1.
2.
3.
4.
DNA unzips at the start of one gene
RNA polymerase reads the bases in the gene
RNA polymerase makes a copy of the sequence
The copy is called mRNA or messenger RNA
Location of transcription? Patterns in mRNA? (3)
5. mRNA leaves
the nucleus
and travels
into the
cytoplasm
and to a
ribosome
https://www.
youtube.com/
watch?v=erO
P76_qLWA
1. The ribosome reads the mRNA 3 bases at a time
2. tRNA (transfer RNA) carries the correct amino acid
to ribosome
3. The ribosome attaches the tRNA to the mRNA
4. The amino acids bond together
5. A protein is formed from the amino acids