Solid Waste Management - Rowan University

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Transcript Solid Waste Management - Rowan University

Solid Waste
Common household and commercial waste
Known as refuse, municipal solid waste (MSW)
Garbage, Trash, Rubbish
Does not include hazardous, nuclear waste or
construction waste
Sources (MSW-Municipal Solid
Waste)
 Municipal
Wastes: 24 lb/capita/day
– metal wastes
– plastic wastes
– food wastes
 Industrial
– paper wastes
– yard wastes
– glass wastes
Wastes
 Agricultural Wastes
 Mining Wastes
Solid Waste Composition (Table 11-1/11-2)
•
Garbage = food waste
•
Rubbish = combustible with some inert
•
Refuse = 50/50 mix of Garbage & Rubbish
•
Trash
= 100% combustible
Integrated Solid Waste
Management (ISWM)
 Combines
– Techniques
– Technologies
– Management Programs
– Impelemented in 1995
Functional Elements of a SW
Management System
Waste
Generation
Waste handling,
separation,storage and
processing at the source
Small to
large truck
Truck & routing
Collection
Separation and
processing and
transformation of SW
Transfer &
Transport
Disposal
Solid Waste Hierarchy
Avoidance
Source Reduction
Recycling
Materials recovery
Energy Recovery
Landfilling
Or transform to a product
Lowest in hierarchy
Solid Waste Disposal
 Sources
 Disposal
Regulations
 Recycling
 Composting
 Collection
 Processing
 Landfilling
 Incineration
Municipal Wastes
 paper
wastes:

– newspapers, books,
magazines, packaging
– good recycling potential
 yard
wastes:
– grass clippings, brush,
leaves
– varies seasonally &
geographically
 glass
wastes:
– bottles, glass jars
– almost all can be recycled
metal wastes:
– beverage & food containers,
scrap appliances
– good recycling potential
 plastic
wastes:
– recycling programs
developed
– recycling codes

food wastes:
– affected by garbage
disposals
SW Regulations
 1965:
Solid Waste Disposal Act
– early recognition of MSW
– promoted better management
– supported R&D
 1970:
Resource Recovery Act
– more emphasis on recycling & energy recovery
– PHS investigated disposal of hazardous wastes
 1976:
Resource Conservation & Recovery Act (RCRA)
– control of hazardous waste storage, treatment and disposal
– has been amended and reauthorized many times
Solid Waste Law: RCRA
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
(RCRA) is the public law that creates the
framework for the proper management of
hazardous and non-hazardous solid waste.
Subtitle C- Hazardous Waste
Subtitle D- Solid Waste
SWANA
THE SOLID WASTE ASSOCIATION OF NORTH AMERICA,
INC. (SWANA)
MSW
Disposal in
US
Recycling
Recycling is the recovery and reuse of a product which
would otherwise be thrown away.
Preliminary steps for a recycling program:
• An accurate analysis of the sources and content of the
solid waste stream.
• Evaluation of any existing recycling programs. Existing
programs must be integrated into the new or expanded
program.
• Identification of public attitudes about recycling.
• Determine what markets exist for the potential recycled
materials. (It does no good to collect materials for
recycling if no market exists for their use!)
• Determine the best recycling options.
Plastic Recycling Codes
 Polyethylene
terephthalate, PETE-1
 High-density
polyethylene, HDPE-2
 Polyvinyl
chloride, PVC-3
 Low-density
polyethylene, LDPE-4
 Polypropelyne,
 Polystyrene,
 Other,
7
PP-5
PS-6
Sunset Park MRF, Brooklyn (2013)
COMINGLED WASTE
Commingled Recyclables: a mixture of several types of
recyclable materials in one container for the purpose of
separating by type at a MRF (Material Recovery Facility).
Recycling Options
 Drop-off
Centers
– can be staffed or unstaffed
 Curbside
Collection
– more effective, but more expensive
 Voluntary
vs. Mandatory Recycling
– enforcement?
– MRF-Materials Recovery Facility
Ohio University is
home to the largest
in-vessel composting
system
Composting
 controlled
aerobic partial degradation of
organic wastes
 natural microbial processes: fungi, bacteria,
protozoa
 especially useful for leaves that used to be
burned
 waste volume reductions of 40-75%
 wastes placed in windrows which are
periodically mixed
Elements of Composting
 Collection
– curbside, drop-off, required public education
 Preprocessing
– grinding, separating, wetting, screening
 Composting
–
–
–
–
Parameters
oxygen: supplied by natural aeration
nitrogen: C/N ratio varies with season
temperature: heat release
moisture: at least 50%
Elements of Composting (Cont.)
 Multi-Level
Composting
– Minimal-Level: 12x24 ft. windrows turned annually,
center become anaerobic, 3 yrs.
– Low-Level: 6x12 ft. windrows mixed monthly to
quarterly, watered, 1.5 yrs.
– Intermediate-Level: same but turned weekly,
specialized equipment, 5 wks.
– High-Level: 10x200 ft., forced air, water & N added,
2-10 wks., then left for 3-12 month.
 Compost
Uses: landscaping, gardening, farming
Recycling
and Composting
Rates
Collection
Collection Service
Description
Cost
Curbside
Resident responsible for placing trash
containers at curbside and returning
them after collection.
Low
Backyard Carry
Collection crew responsible for entering
residents property, transporting
containers to collection vehicle and
returning them to storage location.
High
Alley
Resident responsible for placing trash
containers by alley and returning them
after collection.
Low
PICK UP METHODS
Back Yard - convenient but
expensive
• Set out/ Set back
• Curbside - inconvenient but cheap
•
Collection Vehicles
Commonly used for
trash collection
Also used where
recyclables are collected
Compression to 50%
Vehicle Type
Capacity, yd
3
Rear loaded
compactor
20 to 25
Front loaded
compactor
30 to 40
Side loaded
compactor
25 to 35
Multi-bin recycle
20 to 30
Hauled
container bins
20 to 40
See problem 11.1
Typical Rear Loading collection Vehicle
Side Loading collection Vehicle
TRANSFER STATION
To reduce number of vehicles that must travel to
disposal site and, thus, save $
•
•
•
Transfer Stations are strategically located to
accept waste from collection trucks.
Waste is consolidated, compacted, and loaded
into long-haul trailers for transport to landfills.
This operation improves the utilization of
collection equipment by minimizing
transportation time and efficiently moving large
volumes of waste to our disposal sites.
Solid Waste Processing
 Sorting
– at point of generation, transfer station, or at
landfill
– mechanical or manual
» magnets, compressed air, inertia devices
 Compaction
– low pressure in collection vehicle
– high pressure at transfer station or landfill
 Shredding
GUAM Solid Waste Transfer Station
Landfilling
 The
legal and controlled placement of wastes in
the ground
 Dumping is illegal or uncontrolled
 Material undergoes chemical and biological
changes
 Water is present which promotes biodegradation
and carries away dissolved substances: Leachate
 Leachate collection and recirculation
Siting Restrictions
The landfill disposal regulations provide the following
restrictions on landfill location:
• Prohibit the placement of a landfill facility near an airport because of
dangers from scavenging birds.
• Require the landfill to be located outside the 100 year floodplain or
the landfill design must prevent the washout of solid waste during a
100 year flood.
• Prohibit the placement of a new landfill or expansion of an existing
landfill into or on a wetland.
• Prohibit the placement of a landfill within 200 feet of an earthquake
fault.
• Prohibit the placement of a landfill in an area with a high probability
of a strong earthquake.
• Prohibit the placement of a landfill in an area with unstable soil.
• Require existing landfills which cannot meet the airport, floodplain, or
unstable area requirements above, to close within five years. The
state may grant a maximum of a two year extension.
Operational Requirements
 Provide at least six inches of daily soil cover over new solid
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waste placed in the landfill.
Exclusion of hazardous waste from the landfill.
Control disease vectors such as rodents and insects.
Monitor methane concentrations in the landfill and buildings.
(Methane is explosive when combined with the oxygen in
air.)
Elimination of most open burning.
Control public access.
Construct run-on and run-off controls for water.
Meet water quality discharge requirements (NPDES) to
surface water.
Prohibit all liquid wastes except small quantities of household
liquid wastes.
Maintain records indicating compliance.
Design Requirements
 Synthetic
membrane liner at least 30 mils thick
(A mil is a measurement that equals one-thousandth of
an inch, or 0.001 inch. )
 Soil liner at least 2 ft. thick
 Hydraulic conductivity no more than 10-7 cm/s
 Other state-approved designs possible
Cross Section of a Landfill
Construction Methods for Landfills
https://sites.google.com/site/wastemanagementalternatives/types-of-landfills
Area Method: Waste deposited on surface, compacted,
covered with layer of compacted soil at end of day; suitable
for all terrain
Trench Method: gently sloping land where water table is low
From Sincero & Sincero, 1996
Sectional View of a MSW landfill
Leachate Characteristics
Constituent
Conc. Range,
mg/L
BOD5
9-55,000
COD
0-90,000
Total solids
6-45,000
TDS
0-42,000
TSS
6-2,700
Chloride
34-2,800
TKN
0-1,400
Sulfate
1-1,800
Phosphate
Lead
Copper
pH
0-154
0-5
0-10
3.7-8.5
Process Microbiology
Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids, Polysaccharides
Hydrolysis
Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Monosaccharides etc
Acidogenesis
Alcohols, hydrogen, CO2,formate, acetate
Methanogenesis
Methane and Carbon Dioxide
Process Microbiology
Methanogens or Methane Formers
4H2 + CO2 = CH4 + 2H2O
4HCOOH (formic acid) =CH4 + 2H2O + 3CO2
CH3COOH (acetic acid) = CH4 + CO2
CH3OH (methanol) = 3CH4 + CO2 + 2H2O
4(CH3)3N (trimethylamine)+H2O=9CH4+3CO2+6H2O+4NH3
pH 6.6-7.6, alkalinity should be present; slow growth rates Y =0.06
From Davis & Cornwell, 1991
Bioreactor Landfills
Biological degradation is accelerated to enhance
biodegradation rates by addition of
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–
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Air
Water (recirculating leachate; 35-65% moisture)
Nutrients
Decomposition occurs in years instead of decades
More space available
Cost of leachate disposal reduced/beneficial use
of leachate
 Significant increase in landfill gas
Landfill Gases
Trace gas
emissions are of
concern as many
are VOCs.
Vinyl Chloride
Benzene
TCE
Chloroform
1-1-1 TCA
Methylene Chloride
Ethylene dibromide
Ethylene dichloride
Volume of Gas Produced