Toxicology and Drugs PP

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Transcript Toxicology and Drugs PP

Bellringer
What
makes something
a poison?
Toxicology
and Drugs
Don’t Do Drugs
Objective
Learn
about the evolution
of the study of toxicology,
and the basic things a CSI
looks for in a toxicology
report.
Poison
 “All
substances are poisons.
There is none which is not. The
right dose differentiates a poison
and remedy”
 Paracelsus
(1495-1541), Swiss
physician and chemist
Poisons
 Many
of the most poisonous
chemicals can actually be helpful
in small doses.
 Arsenic
is extremely dangerous, but
is found naturally; like in water.
The most deadly poison
 One
gram of botulin could kill more than
a million people.
 This
is the same thing that people inject
into their face to “get rid” of wrinkles
 Also
used to cure migraines
Botulism
 An
illness caused by the botulinum toxin
 Causes
 Not
paralysis
genetic
Poison and Crime

People have been killing each other with
poisons for centuries!

It became an art at one point, a job, or a
hobby.

Back then they used many natural poisons.

At the time it was an untraceable way of
killing someone.
Forensic Toxicology
 People
began to figure out how to test for
poisons in dead people in the early 1800’s
 This

became known as Toxicology:
The study of the adverse effects of chemicals or
physical agents on living organisms
Elements of Toxicology
 There
are six important things that
a forensic scientist looks for while
doing a toxicology report.
1. The chemical or physical form of
the substance.
2. Dosage or how much is in the
body.
3. How it enters the body.
Elements of Toxicology
4.
5.
6.
The body weight and
physiological conditions of the
victim, including age and sex.
The time period of exposure.
Whether other chemicals are
present in the body or in the
dose.
Arsenic
 Arsenic
metal won’t be absorbed in your
stomach so it is not very poisonous
 Other
compounds of arsenic are easily
absorbed by your stomach and these will
kill you quickly
 Arsenic
can also be part of a gas that
can kill you if inhaled
Ways of being poisoned
 There
is not just one way to poison
someone…remember it’s an art!
 Poisons can be swallowed, injected,
absorbed through the skin, or inhaled.
 Toxins:
Substance that cause injury to
the heath of a living thing on contact
or absorption
Check Point
1.
What are the six elements of
toxicology?
2.
Is there only one way a person
can be poisoned?
Textbook Work

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
On pages 210 to 213
Define: Chronic Exposure, Acute Toxicity,
Synergism, and Antagonism
What is LD50 and why is it important for
people to know?
If you eat ants, should you drink ant poison?
Why or why not?
What is dioxin poisoning.
Why doesn’t BOTOX kill you?
How did they track down who poisoned
Aleksandr Litvinenko?
Bellringer
What
are the six
elements of toxicology?
Objectives
 Solidify
your history and terms of
toxicology and poison.
 Learn
about common modern
causes of poisoning.
Textbook Work

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
On pages 210 to 213
Define: Chronic Exposure, Acute Toxicity,
Synergism, and Antagonism
What is LD50 and why is it important for
people to know?
If you eat ants, should you drink ant poison?
Why or why not?
What is dioxin poisoning.
Why doesn’t BOTOX kill you?
How did they track down who poisoned
Aleksandr Litvinenko?
How do you detect radiation
poisoning?
 Demonstration
Lead Poisoning

Lead compounds are not highly poisonous,
but chronic (long-term) exposure to lead is
very harmful

Our body needs some metals in it (like iron).
We do not need lead.

When we take in lead it takes the place of
iron or other useful metals, but doesn’t do the
same job as them
Lead Poisoning

Lead poisoning can cause subtle brain damage,
affecting memory and thought processes.

The Romans loved lead! They used it in





Make-up
Cooking pots
Plumbing
Utensils
And they even boiled their wine in it!
Downfall of the Romans
 Many
people believe this long term
poisoning of themselves helped lead to
their downfall.
 This
would never happen in modern times
right?
Wrong
 Clair
Cameron Patterson vs. Gas
Companies
 After becoming the leading expert in
analyzing trace amounts of lead after
discovering how old the universe is, C.C.
Patterson began fighting against lead in
gasoline.
Clair Cameron Patterson vs.
Gas Companies
 The
Gasoline companies hired and paid
scientists to lie and say that since lead is
naturally created on Earth that it is totally
ok for humans to have in their bodies.
 C.C. Patterson proved that lead is not
meant to be anywhere near the surface
of the Earth, where humans live.
Bellringer
 Who
do?
was C.C. Patterson and what did he
Objectives
 Understand
and explain the likeliness of
becoming poisoned by lead.
 Begin
to learn the dangers of alcohol
poisoning.
C.C. Patterson
 Compared
trace lead levels in top and
bottom ocean levels
 Compared trace lead deposits in ice
mountains on Antarctica to modern ice.
 Patterson won, and the government
outlawed the use of lead in all standard,
consumer, automotive gasoline by 1986.
Lead Poisoning

Now lead poisoning is most common from lead
paint.

It is most common in children.

Lead has a sweet taste.


This is why both children and Romans love to eat it!
Teething babies like to chew on sweet tasting lead
paint
Lead Poisoning
 Now
paint (1978) and gasoline (1995) are
both lead free.
 You
cannot (legally) sell a house knowing
that it has lead paint in it.
 Can test paint with chemicals to see if
it’s lead based.
 Is it better to use lead or steel shot in a
shotgun??
Other sources of lead
Lead Summary
Is
it likely that an assassin
would use lead to poison
someone with? Why or why
not?
Lead Poisoning Summary
 How
concerned should you be with
becoming poisoned from lead?
 What
is the most likely way to be poisoned
from lead?
The Cold War
 Read
the Case Study on page 219 of
the textbook.
 How
big is 1.7 millimeters?
 What should you do if you ever get hit
with someone else’s umbrella? Why?
Alcohol

Alcohol is the most abused drug in America

About 40 percent of all traffic deaths are
alcohol related

This is the justification for and focus of our DUI
laws
DUI Laws
 DWI
– Driving while intoxicated
 OUI
– Operating under the influence
 OWI
 MIP
– Operating while intoxicated
– Minor in possession
Legal Limit
Alcohol
 Alcohol
is a poison
 It
is measured by the amount of ethyl
alcohol in the blood (BAC)
 The
legal limit is 0.08 percent
Alcohol

Like all poisons too much, can kill you

Alcohol directly effects your brain functions


Too much alcohol can cause parts of your body
to shut down.
Even after someone has stopped drinking
their BAC can still rise
Alcohol

Alcohol begins to effect peoples’ brain
function as soon as they drink it


It is easily absorbed into the blood stream
The liver “filters” out about 90 percent of it

First it changes it to acetaldehyde (a poison),
then to acetic acid, then finally to carbon
dioxide and water.
BAC
A





person’s BAC depends on
their sex
their body weight
what they were drinking
how fast they drank it
their tolerance
BAC calculations
 
=
 
0.071∗  , ∗(%)
 ℎ
=
0.085∗  , ∗(%)
 ℎ
BAC calculations
 What
is the BAC of Johnny if he had 30 oz
of 5.7% alcohol and weighs 157 pounds?

0.08%
 What
is the BAC if a 120 pound female
had the same amount of alcohol?

0.12%
Bellringer

Calculate the BAC of a male that weighs 160
pounds and had 20 ounces of 4.2% alcohol.

0.071∗ 20 ∗(4.2%)
160

.04%
Objectives
 Be
able to explain the laws of alcohol and
the roads.
 “Experience”
field sobriety tests.
Reminder
 Your
outline for your final paper is due this
Friday (5/2)
 This outline should have references too.
BAC
Questions
 What
percent of car crash deaths involve
alcohol?
 What
is the legal BAC limit in the USA for a
driver?
BAC
 Police
officers do not use the honor
system and charts to figure out someone’s
BAC
Field Sobriety Tests

Police officers can conduct a field sobriety test if they
are suspicious that a driver is under the influence

Tests can include






Walking a straight line
Standing on one foot while counting
Reciting the alphabet rapidly or counting from ten
backwards
Touching a finger to the nose
A nine-step heel-to-toe and turn
Observation of eye twitching
Breathalyzers
 Modern
breathalyzers are
small and very accurate
 They
either use infrared
light or chemical fuel cells
to figure out someone’s
BAC
Breathalyzers
 If
the police officer thinks the breathalyzer
is wrong they can bring you in for a direct
blood test.
 You
can also refuse to take a breathalyzer
test, but then you will be arrested and
taken in for a blood test.
Drugs

A natural or synthetic substance designed to
affect humans psychologically (mind) or
physiologically (body).

They can affect the function or structure of
living tissue through various chemical
reactions.

When too much of a drug is taken it is
considered a poison.
Manufacturing
 Most
drugs are legitimately manufactured
by drug companies and are prescribed
for particular medical problems.
 Some
people find the effects pleasurable
which drives them to buy or produce
illegally manufactured drugs.
Bellringer - Collected
 What

is the definition of a drug?
Hand in when you’re done.
Objectives
 Understand
America
 Know
the cost of drug abuse in
the different types of drugs.
Drug Abuse

When drugs are taken strictly for pleasure they are
considered “drugs of abuse” or “illicit drugs”

All drugs that are restricted by the government are
called “controlled substances”

The Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) is the lead
agency for enforcement of federal drug laws.
Recreational Drug Use

Causes dependency

Where one’s time and energy is spent getting
the drugs needed to feel good

Can lead to theft, violence, or distributing for
profits.

Can cause extreme mental and physical
health problems.
Cost of Drug Abuse in America

Illegal drugs: $181 billion per year
Alcohol: $185 billion per year
Tobacco: $193 billion per year

Total: $559 billion per year

Note: it is much easier to track legal drug
expenses than illegal drug expenses


Cost of Drug Abuse in America

About 30 percent of prisoners committed their
current offence while under the influence of drugs

About 675 people are killed in drug related crimes
every year.

About one third of all incidents of domestic
violence are drug related.
Checkpoint
 What
 How
is considered drug abuse?
much money is lost every year in
America due to illegal drug abuse?
Controlled Drugs

About 75 percent of the evidence being
examined in forensic laboratories is
considered drug-related

Either the drugs themselves, or evidence from
drug-related crimes

As soon as a pharmaceutical company
produces a new drug, it sends a sample to the
FBI Crime Lab so they can develop tests to
identify it.
Controlled Drugs

There are five categories of controlled drugs.

Drugs fall into a category based on their legal
use, and likeliness to be abused.

Penalties, and punishments for each drug is
based on which category it is in.
Controlled Drugs

Controlled drugs can be split into four widely
used classifications based on their
pharmacological effects

Hallucinogens
Stimulants
Narcotics
Depressants



Checkpoint
 What
are the four classifications of
controlled drugs?
 What
are the punishments for illegal drug
use based on?
Hallucinogens
Hallucinogens
are mostly
naturally occurring substances
that can change normal
thought processes,
perceptions, and moods.
Marijuana

The most widely used hallucinogen in the USA
is marijuana. (From cannabis plant)

The active ingredient in marijuana ranges
from 1 to 10 percent.

It decreases the user’s ability to concentrate,
slows reactions, and impairs coordination.
LSD or Acid

Derived from fungus that grows on grain.

As little as 0.000001 grams can cause visual and
auditory hallucinations.

Liquid dried on edible paper.

Extremely dangerous drug that can cause psychosis,
flashbacks, and impaired memory or attention span.

It can also cause birth defects in an embryo or fetus.
Bellringer
 What
are the four classifications of drugs?
Objectives
 Know
the different between the four
classifications of drugs.
 Know
the dangers of the four different
classifications of drugs.
PCP - Phencyclidine

Originally used as an intravenous anesthetic,
but it had bizarre side effects

Causes insensitivity to pain, feelings of super
strength, rage, memory loss, and paranoia

Often mixed with other drugs
MDMA - Ecstasy

Methylenedioxymethamphetamine

Synthetic drug that stimulates the user and causes
hallucinations

Causes psychological problems; confusion, depression,
severe anxiety, paranoia – even weeks after use

Increases blood pressure and heart rate enough to kill you

Long term brain damage, ruining thought and memory
Ketamine – Special K

Legitimately used as an animal tranquilizer

Powerful hallucinogen – causes delirium, amnesia,
depression, and long-term memory difficulties

Club drug found at raves – like MDMA, GHB, GBL,
rohypnol, LSD,PCP, and methamphetamine
Checkpoint
 What
 What
are five examples of hallucinogens?
are some common side effects of
hallucinogens?
Stimulants
 Stimulants
act on the central nervous
system to make the user feel better and
increase his or her energy
 Once
the user comes down from the high
they become depressed, restless, and
anxious
Caffeine
 Caffeine
 Found
is a very mild stimulant
in coffee and soft drinks
Amphetamines

Called “uppers”

Synthetic drugs

Also methamphetamines :

Speed or crank
Crystal meth

Usually inhaled or smoked

Cocaine
 It
is an alkaloid: bitter-tasting basic
organic compounds
 Other
alkaloids are nicotine, strychnine,
caffeine, and morphine.
 Alkaloids
things.
have powerful effects on living
Cocaine

Comes from the coca leaf, and is grown
almost exclusively in the Amazon

500 pounds of leaves produce 1 pound of
powder

Used to be mainly snorted

Now it is more popular to smoke the
recrystallized freebase (crack, or crackcocaine)
Crack

Crack is highly addictive

Regular use can cause anxiety, insomnia,
weight loss

Leads to paranoia and mental deterioration

Nicotine is also a habit-forming stimulant, but
is not a controlled substance
Qat in Yemen

Qat is a natural stimulant, it is a leaf that is chewed
and packed in the cheek

Yemen is addicted to it.

About 80 percent of the inhabitants are stoned
everyday

Their President says it’s good for kids because it
keeps them off of drugs.

Driving the nation to poverty with no end in sight.
Qat
 Video
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=40Db
V8K8hiA
 How has Qat ruin there society?
Checkpoint
 What
 What
are four examples of stimulants?
are some common side effects of
stimulants?
Bellringer
 What
part of the body do narcotic drugs
effect?
Objective
 Understand
the dangers of narcotics and
depressants.
Outlines
 Please
pass up your completed outlines of
your serial killer projects.
 If
you don’t have it now it is late. Get it to
me ASAP so you don’t lose too many
points.
Project Grading
 Remember
each due date is part of your
final grade for the project.
 If
you don’t hand one part in it is a zero.
Missing Assignments
 Check
your grades for missing
assignments.
 If
you’re absent, you missed work that
needs to be made up!
Narcotics

Narcotics are drugs that affect the central
nervous system by relieving pain

Mild narcotics are found in over the counter
drugs like Tylenol, and Motrin

Illicit narcotics come from opium, harvested
from a type of poppy flower
Opium

Opium contains about 4 to 21 percent morphine

Morphine is used medically as a powerful
painkiller.

Comes from milky fluid from the seeds of a bulb.
92% is supplied by Afghanistan

Opium Wars

The British had nothing good to trade the Chinese
so they traded opium
Heroin

Easily made from morphine and is highly
addictive

Overdoses can cause death; STDs are
common among users (from sharing needles)

Also called horse or smack
Codeine
 Commercially
 Natural
 Found
prepared from morphine
painkiller
is some over the counter drugs in
Canada
Synthetic Narcotics or Opiates

Often pills prescribed for pain, but also abused

Propoxyphene (Darvon) and oxycodone
(Percocet)are two commonly abused prescription
drugs

Methadone is used as a heroin substitute to wean
addicts
Designer Drugs

Designer drugs are drugs synthesized with
particular characteristics, designed for abuse
and evasion of specific drug laws

Fentanyl is 100 times stronger than morphine
and sparked the “designer drug” age

China White – “Pure” form of heroin
Checkpoint
 What
 What
are four examples of narcotics?
are some common side effects of
narcotics?
Depressants
 Depressants,
strength
 Cause
like other drugs, vary in their
slow brain function, lack of
coordination, poor concentration,
sluggishness, weight gain, depression, and
addiction
Ethyl Alcohol

Ethyl Alcohol is a common depressant

Alcohol is not a controlled substance, but
instead it’s a legal $40 billion dollar industry in
America

This doesn’t mean that is totally beneficial –
think of Yemen
Barbiturates

Aka “Downers”

Highly addictive, withdrawal is difficult and
dangerous.

Most are prescribed to reduce anxiety and
help the user sleep.
Examples






Phenobarbital
Nembutal
Seconal
Meprobamate – Miltown
Methaqualone –Quaaludes
Benzodiazepines – Tranquilizers such as Librium
and Valium
Checkpoint
 What
 What
are two examples of depressants?
are some common side effects of
depressants?
Video
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9f2o4
UQBuS8
Video Questions
 What
is the added benefit of putting drug
abusers in jail instead of leaving them on
the streets?
 Why
take out all stages of the drug
dealing process instead of just the top or
bottom members?
Bellringer
What
are the punishments for
drug possession based on?
Legal
use of drug, and
likeliness for abuse
Objectives
Express
your opinion on legal
drug use in America.
Learn examples of and the
difference between spot tests
and confirmatory tests.
Reminders
 If
you didn’t hand in your outline on Friday
I need it ASAP.
I
still need serial killers from some of you.
 The
poster sketch is due 5/16
Drug Summary Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
What are the four different types of
controlled substances?
Give three examples of each type of
controlled substance.
What are four common side effects of each
type of controlled substance.
Why does drug abuse lead to other crimes?
Give at least two examples.
How much money does America lose every
year due to illicit drug use?
How often is drug related evidence being
processed in a crime lab?
“The drug made me do it”
defense

If you commit a crime while on drugs can you
blame the drug and get away with it?

Read the case study on page 180 of the
textbook.


Can you blame a drug for your behavior or
crime you committed? Why or why not?
Write a paragraph
Your Opinion.





Most people in Yemen enjoy chewing Qat
leaves and getting high instead of doing
anything productive after lunch.
If the government made marijuana legal do
you think America would be endangered of a
similar problem?
Why or why not?
Write a well argued paragraph stating your
opinion.
Your paragraph should include at least three
comprehensive arguments.

The more the merrier.
Bellringer
 What
are the four classifications of drugs?
 Stimulants
 Depressants
 Narcotics
 Hallucinogens
Objectives
 Know
the difference between a spot test
and a confirmatory test.
 Understand
how spectrometry is used to
figure out what a mystery substance is.
Spot Tests
A
spot test is a chemical
reaction that occurs when a
particular substance is added
to an unknown.
Color Reactions
 Color
reactions for spot tests on drugs
are an easy and quick method used
to detect the presence of certain
substances
 Easy to conduct in the field
 These tests are not conclusive


Need more testing for a positive result
A negative result means the drug isn’t there
Color Reactions
 Different
drugs require different chemicals
to be mixed with them to produce a color
reaction.
Drugs
Color
Marijuana
Blue-violet
LSD
Blue-violet
Amphetamines
Red-orange to brown
Cocaine
Blue and flaky
Heroin
Purple
Barbiturates
violet
Testing for Marijuana

A police officer thinks she smells marijuana in
a car she pulled over. Then she sees a plastic
baggie with some plant-like material in it.

The driver claims it is just some cooking spices,
but the officer still takes it.

The color test is used for marijuana
Marijuana becomes purple when mixed with
Duquenois-Levine (D-L)

Confirmatory Tests
Tests
that specifically
identify one substance.
Spectrophotometry
 Every
compound produces a different
electromagnetic wavelength
spectrum

Like the DNA of compounds (drugs)
 Forensic
scientists compare the
spectrum of a substance found at a
crime scene to a known sample to
figure out what drug it is.
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Breaking Light
 Like
paint light mixes together so in order
to look at each piece of light we need to
break it up.
 Break light up with a prism which disperses
the light into its component colors.
 Once the light is split we can analyze its
spectrum.
Spectrophotometry
Spectrometer
Spectrometry Demos

What does sun light look light?

What does fluorescent light look like?

What do the different tubes look like?

How could we identify the different tubes if the
labels were peeled off?
Bellringer
What
is the definition and
one example of a spot test?
Objectives
 Finish
 Start
spectrometry notes
Legalization Project
Spectroscopy Videos

Cocaine


Heroin


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RjhTllPiwBk
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6U0dH9ml9
Tc
Everything ever

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ERmRPf1Ls0
Checkpoint
What
is the difference between
spot and confirmatory tests?
Give
one example of each.
Legalization Project
 Page
203 of the textbook.
 Work in pairs.
 Use laptops, notes, or textbook to find
sources.
 Can be typed or handwritten
Outline
 Pick
which drug(s) you want to talk about
and why (Introduction)
 Find three different ideas with sources that
support the legalization of the drug(s) you
picked
 Find three different ideas with sources that
do not support the legalization of the
drug(s) you picked
Objectives
Identify
drugs using the
color spot test
Review
for tomorrow
Bellringer
 What
are penalties and punishments for
drugs based off of?
 Its
actual medical use and its likeliness to
be abused
Objective
 Complete
 Review
spot test drug lab
for tomorrow’s test
Drug Test
 Tomorrow
we will have an opennotebook test on toxicology and drugs.
The case of the
“white powder”
Mr. Johnson came home late Tuesday night
and found his front door wide open. Upon
entering, he realized that his house had
been robbed!! Four white powders were
found at the crime scene. As the detective
in charge, you need to determine if these
powders are related to the robbery. What
do you think these powders could be??
Investigation
 You
and your group will use two different
liquids to identify which white powders
are drugs.
Water
A
B
C
D
Vinegar
Iodine
D
C
B
A