Psychoactive Drugs

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Transcript Psychoactive Drugs

Consciousness
OBJECTIVE: PROVIDED NOTES
& AN ACTIVITY, SWBAT CHART
NAMES & EFFECTS OF
DEPRESSANTS, STIMULANTS,
& HALLUCINOGENIC DRUGS
AGENDA:
-DO NOW
-NOTES
-ACTIVITY
Topic: Psychoactive Drugs
Consciousness:
Psychoactive Drugs
PART ONE
Consciousness: Psychoactive Drugs
 Psychoactive Drugs
 Chemical substances
that modify mental,
emotional or behavioral
functioning

Continued use of a
psychoactive drug produces
tolerance; thus creating a
situation in which greater quantities are needed to
produce the desired effect
 Leads to…?
Consciousness: Psychoactive Drugs
 Physical Dependence
 Condition occurring when a person’s body becomes
unable to function normally without a particular
substance
 Psychological Dependence
 The feeling that a drug is needed to continue a feeling
of emotional or psychological well-being
 Withdrawal
 Physical symptoms that can include nausea, pain,
tremors, crankiness & high blood pressure, resulting
from the lack of an addictive substance
Depressants:
Down in the Valley
Depressants: Down in the Valley
 Depressants
 A class of drugs that
decrease the functioning
of the central nervous
system
Depressants: Down in the Valley
 Alcohol
 The most commonly used
& abused depressant


10 t0 20 million
American suffer from
alcoholism
Impact of Alcoholism
Health risks (liver, heart,
brain, etc.)
 Loss of work time, loss of job, loss of economic stability
 MANY, MANY, MANY RISKS…

Depressants: Down in the Valley
 Signs of Alcohol Abuse
 Range from…
Binge drinking + drunkenness
 Guilt associated with drinking
 Drinking in the morning and/or drinking alone
 Drinking to recover from drinking
 Drinking enough to have blackouts or memory loss
 Lying about drinking
 Sensitivity to comments

 What constitutes “a drink?” (see handout)
Depressants: Down in the Valley
 Barbiturates/Major Tranquilizers
 Drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous
system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and
judgment
Sedative effects
 Range from mild sedation or sleepiness to
unconsciousness or coma
 Highly addictive; users rapidly develop a tolerance
 Examples
 Nembutal
 Seconal

Depressants: Down in the Valley
 Benzodiazepines/Minor Tranquilizers
 Drugs that lower anxiety and reduce stress
Considered safer than Barbiturates; prescribed much
more often
 Examples
 Valium
 Xanax
 Librium
 Minor tranquilizers can STILL be very addictive &
dangerous

Depressants: Down in the Valley
 Opiates (Narcotics)
 Opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin);
depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain
and anxiety

Bind to & stimulate receptor sites for endorphins; when
brain is repeatedly flooded with an artificial opiate, it
eventually stops producing its own
 Highly addictive & associated with severe withdrawal
 Treatment options?
• Methadone…
Stimulants:
Up, Up & Away
Stimulants: Up, Up & Away
 Stimulants
 A class of drugs that cause either the sympathetic
division or the central nervous system (or both) to
increase levels of functioning, at least temporarily
Excite neural activity & speed body functions
 “Uppers”

Stimulants: Up, Up & Away
 Amphetamines
 Stimulates neural activity, causing accelerated body
functions, as well as energy & mood changes


Synthesized in laboratories
 DO NOT provide extra energy; simply cause people to
burn energy reserves; leads to an inevitable crash
Methamphetamine

Related compound; sometimes prescribed to treat
ADHD, obesity and narcolepsy
 DANGER: “Crystal Meth”
Stimulants: Up, Up & Away
 Cocaine
 A natural drug that induces
euphoria, energy, power &
pleasure followed by a crash

Leads to agitated depression;
the “high” depletes the
brain’s supply of dopamine,
serotonin & norepinephrine
 Highly addictive
 Three basic signs of physical dependency
• Compulsive use
• Loss of control
• Disregard for consequences
Stimulants: Up, Up & Away
 Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)
 Also known as Ecstasy
 Stimulant (and mild hallucinogen)


Produces euphoric high
Can damage serotoninproducing neurons, which
results in a permanent
deflation of mood and
impairment of memory

Known as the “Club Drug”
Stimulants: Up, Up & Away
 Caffeine
 Naturally occurring in coffee
beans, tea leaves, cocoa nuts &
at least 60 other types of plants

Mild stimulant; increases heart
and breathing rates
 Found in coffee,
tea, most sodas,
chocolate & many
over-the-counter
drugs
Stimulants: Up, Up & Away
 Nicotine
 Relatively mild, though toxic stimulant; produces a
slight “rush” or sense of arousal; raises blood
pressure & accelerates heart rate; also stimulates the
release of adrenalin
Nearly 438,000 Americans die from nicotine-related
illnesses each year
 According to the CDC (2002), that’s more people than
those who die from accidents, alcohol, cocaine, heroin
and other drug abuse, AIDS, suicide and homicide
COMBINED
 Rates of usage?
 Addictive power?

Hallucinogens:
Higher & Higher
Hallucinogens: Higher & Higher
 Hallucinogens
 A class of drugs that cause false sensory messages
(hallucinations), altering the perception of reality

Example
 In some cases sensations can cross over each other
(e.g. colors have sound, sounds have smells, etc.)
Hallucinogens: Higher & Higher
 Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)
 A synthetic hallucinogen; extremely potent

Synthesized from a grain (rye) fungus called ergot
 Takes people out of the real world & puts them into a
world of the brain’s creation; NOT ALWAYS A
PLEASANT PLACE!
 Phencyclidine (PCP)
 A synthetic drug so dangerous that it became useful
only as an animal tranquilizer

***Depending on its dosage, can be a hallucinogen,
stimulant, depressant or analgesic drug
Hallucinogens: Higher & Higher
 Marijuana (Cannibas Sativa)
 Mild hallucinogen derived from the leaves and
flowers of a particular type of hemp plant

Best known and most commonly abused hallucinogen
 Effects relatively mild compared to others
• Mild euphoria and relaxation
• Altered time sense
• Mild visual distortions

Associated with high levels of psychological
dependency & low (no) levels of physical dependency
Mouse Party
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/ad
diction/mouse/