An Overview of Forensic Science

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Transcript An Overview of Forensic Science

Introduction to Forensic Science and
Crime Scene Processing
Forensic Science
Disciplines
• Chemistry (Physical sciences)
• Drugs
• Trace Evidence
• Toxicology
• Biology
• DNA
• Serology
• Identification (Criminalistics)
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Fingerprints
Firearms/Toolmarks
Footwear/Tire Tracks
Questioned Documents
Drug Chemistry
• Drug
A natural or synthetic substance that is used to
produce physiological or psychological effects in
humans or animals
• Controlled substance
The sale and distribution is tightly controlled
• Controlled Substances Act (Sched. I-V)
Trace Evidence – Found in
small but measurable amounts
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Soil analysis
Paint analysis
Fiber analysis
Glass analysis
Forensic Toxicology
• Study of “poisons”
• Drugs in blood and urine
• Blood and breath alcohol
Forensic Biology
• Forensic Serology
• Forensic Characterization of Semen
• DNA (CODIS)
Criminalistics
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Latent Prints
Toolmarks
Firearms
Footwear Impressions
Tire Tracks
Questioned Documents
Basic Principles
• Forensic Science:
“it is the application of science to those criminal
and civil laws that are enforced by police
agencies in a criminal justice system”
• Physical Evidence:
“any object that can establish that a crime has
been committed or can provide a link between a
crime and its victim or between a crime and its
perpetrator”