March 28, Social Construction

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Transcript March 28, Social Construction

OVERVIEW
• FOCUS ON M.I. AS SOCIAL CATEGORY NOT
ON PEOPLE WITH M.I.
• HOW GROUPS CREATE, USE, AND EXPAND
CATEGORIES OF M.I.
• PROFESSIONAL, FAMILY, ECONOMIC
• EXAMPLES OF SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION,
SOCIAL ANXIETY, AUTISM, ADD
FINDINGS
• 43 % OF WOMEN AND 31% OF MEN
HAVE SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION
• VERY WIDESPREAD PUBLIC HEALTH
PROBLEM
• PEOPLE MUST KNOW THAT
MEDICATIONS ARE AVAILABLE TO
HELP
DSM SYMPTOMS
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LACK INTEREST IN SEX
ANXIETY ABOUT PERFORMANCE
AROUSAL DIFFICULTIES
UNABLE TO HAVE ORGASM
CLIMAX TOO QUICKLY
FIND SEX PAINFUL
SEX NOT PLEASURABLE
SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION
• BEST PREDICTOR?
• LOW SATISFACTION WITH PARTNER
• PEOPLE WHO DON’T ENJOY SEX
WITH PARTNERS ARE CALLED
MENTALLY ILL AND SHOULD TAKE
MEDICATION
FINDINGS
• FIRST APPEARED IN DSM-III (1980)
• FIRST STUDY - “COMPELLING
DESIRE” TO AVOID SITUATIONS –
2.75% PREVALENCE IN 1984
• NCS – “UNREASONABLY STRONG
FEAR” – 13.3% PREVALENCE IN 1994
WHY PERPETUATED?
• PERPETUATED BECAUSE BENEFITS
PARTICULAR GROUPS
• PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES
• RESEARCHERS
• CONSUMERS
AUTISM
• 273% INCREASE FROM 1990-2000
• BELIEF IN AUTISM EPIDEMIC
• SEARCH FOR CAUSES (E.G.
VACCINATION)
GERNSBACHER
• BEFORE 1990, NOT EVEN REPORTED
• RISE TOO GREAT TO BE BELIEVABLE
• IN FACT, EXPANDED DSM CRITERIA
MAKE IT EASIER TO GET DIAGNOSIS
• BENEFITS FROM DIAGNOSIS
STARTING IN 1991 (IDEA)
AUTISM
• ADVANTAGES FROM DIAGNOSIS FOR
FAMILIES
• COALESCE INTO SOCIAL MOVEMENT
• IMPORTANCE OF LAY GROUPS IN
PROMOTING DIAGNOSIS
ADD DIAGNOSES 1980 - 2000
4,500,000
4,000,000
3,500,000
3,000,000
2,500,000
2,000,000
1,500,000
1,000,000
500,000
0
1980
1990
2000
PRESCRIPTIONS FOR
METHYLPHENIDATE
20,000,000
18,000,000
16,000,000
14,000,000
12,000,000
10,000,000
8,000,000
6,000,000
4,000,000
2,000,000
0
1990
2000
REASONS
• 1991 CHANGE IN FEDERAL DISABILITY
POLICY
• FAMILIES – ENHANCE PERFORMANCE,
CONTROL BEHAVIOR
• TEACHERS – MORE CONTROL IN
CLASSROOM
• DRUG COMPANIES
• LAY GROUPS - CHADD
BENEFITS
• BETTER ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
• BOOST SELF-ESTEEM
• HELP PARENTS AND TEACHERS
COSTS
• EFFECT OF LONG-TERM MEDICATION
REGIME
• STIGMA?
• ABUSE OF DIAGNOSIS
SUMMARY
TREMENDOUS RECENT RISE IN RATES
OF TREATED M.I.
INFLUENCE OF PHARMACEUTICAL CO.
INFLUENCE OF FAMILY GROUPS
INFLUENCE OF DSM
BENEFITS AND COSTS