juliette simoes_ drugs

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Transcript juliette simoes_ drugs

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A day to night method of sleep is called the
circadian rhythm.
This corresponds with the pattern of the sun
as in sunrise and sunset.
But If you take away all time cues then you
body will run off a 25 hr clock called freerunning rhythm
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• Sleep is divided into stages based on
brain waves
• EEGs or electroencephalograms which
provide a picture of the electrical activity of
the brain
Stages of sleep
• First stage produces small irregular waves
called beta waves
• As sleep gets deeper then the transfer to theta
waves
• Second stage pattern of waves are called sleep
spindles
– Broken up into K complexes which are large, slow
waves.
– Skeletal muscles are completely relaxed in this stage
Stages continued
• Stages 3 & 4 delta waves are common but
with a larger proportion of them in stage 4
• all stages beside the last one are
considered non-rem or NREM
– The eyes are still
REM (rapid eye movement)
• In this stage the eyes move vigorously.
– This is associated when dreaming however is
not the only stage where you sleep
This is also called paradoxical sleep because
the brain waves show as you are awake
Insomnia
• This is lack of sleep, which can take the
form of an inability to fall asleep or to
maintain sleep.
• Stress, can cause temporary insomnia
as can alcohol or a stimulant as
caffeine
Narcolepsy
• Is the inability to stay awake
– They have urges to sleep at inappropriate
times
– They only sleep for a few minutes
– Can be treated but the cause of the disorder
is unknown
Sleep Apnea
• Is a disorder in which a person repeatedly
stop breathing while sleeping
• It happens hundred of times during sleep
leaving the sufferer exhausted during the
day
– Correlated with obesity ad also liked to
alcohol consumption
– SIDS maybe be a form of sleep apnea
Hypnosis
• Is an altered state of consciousness which
the hypnotized person is under complete
relaxation.
– Neodissociative theory: somehow divides or
dissociates the mind into two parts
– Posthypnotic suggestion: are instructions
given to people when they are hypnotized that
are to be implented after they wake
Psychoactive drug effects
• Another way to receive alter state is by
using psychoactive drug
– Divided into four broad categories
•
•
•
•
Central nervous system (CNS)
CNS stimulants
Narcotics
Hallucinogens
CNS depressants
• Are drugs that slow down the CNS
– Include alcohol, barbiturates and tranquilizers
elevate your mood and relax inhibitions while
the same time inducing intoxication
Intoxication = state of behavioral and cognitive
impariament
Alcohol = decrease neural dopamine levels,
reduction in attention and motor ability
Includes dizziness, slurred speech, impaired
judgment. etc
Barbiturates
• Are drugs hat inhibit neural arousal
centers
– Results in decreased anxiety, increase
relaxation and sleep
– Very dangerous when mixed with alcohol
– And very addictive
Tranquilizer – reduce anxiety w/o inducing
sleep
CNS stimulants
• Caffeine is a mild CNS. This accelrates
your heart rate and constricts blood
vessels
• Reduces levels of Adenosine, a
nuerochemical regulator
• Amphetamines powerful CNS, increase
body temp & heart rate
– Found in most diet products
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• Cocaine is an extremely potent, increases
heart rate and blood pressure
– Users feel as though they have increased
mental and social ability
– Highly addictive
Nicotine – found in tobacco smoke, mixed with
stimulant & depressent behavioral effects