Chapter 7: Consciousness

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Transcript Chapter 7: Consciousness

Chapter 7:
Consciousness
McElhaney
Point Loma High
AP Outline
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Definitions
What is consciousness?
Sleep
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Stages of REM
Stages of Non-REM
Sleep
Functions of Sleep
Dysfunctions of Sleep
Theories of Sleep
Dreaming
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Variations of
Consciousness
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Hypnosis
Meditation
Daydreaming
Psychoactive Drug
Effects on consciousness
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Narcotics
Depressants
Stimulants
Hallucinogens
Consciousness
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Consciousness and altered States of awareness are core
features of mental life.
Sleep has 4 stages
Sleep Loss/Sleep Disorders are health problems
Dreams- are meaningful- but question is how much.
Interpreting dreams can cause self-Awareness
Hypnosis- can be useful to change experiences
Psychoactive Drugs can be abused
Drug abuse- relates to personal maladjustment
“The Cerebral cortex is the seat of human
consciousness”
Definitions
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To be conscious is to be aware
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Waking Consciousness = a state of clear
organized alertness
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When we are conscious we can perceive time, place,
events (Normal Consciousness)
Changes in Consciousness:
Altered States of Consciousness
(ASC)
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All can change consciousness
Are changes in quality and pattern of mental
activity examples=
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Shifts in perception, emotions, memories, time
sense, thoughts, self control, suggestibility
What causes ASC?
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Sensory overload (RAVE)
Monotonous stimulation
Unusual physical condition (Fever/sleep loss)
Fatigue, delirium, hypnosis, drugs, music, long
distance running
Why would someone want to Alter
consciousness?
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Sweat lodge- Sioux Indians, say, sweat causes
cleansing, awareness and personal revelation.
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Some cultures seek altered states for personal
enlightenment and pleasure
Cultural views vary
Views range from- belief that people are Crazy
or insightful
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Sleep
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We are still sensitive even though we are asleep.
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Do the Sleep quiz on page 252
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Sleep is an innate Biological Rhythm
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We all eventually fall asleep
Sleep Patterns
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24 hour rhythms
Based on light and dark- time markers are
important
Average 7-8 hours of sleep
As we get older we sleep less
Biology and Sleep
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Sleep hormone in brain and spinal cord that
promotes sleep. (Melatonin or Orexin) not
identified by text.
Micro-sleep
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Brain activity- pattern similar to sleep
Sleeping while awake=
What should you do if you encounter Microsleep while driving?
Stages of Sleep
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4 stages of sleepMeasured EEG- electroencephalograph
Brain waves associated with sleep:
Alpha- before sleep longer, slower (also when day dream)
 Beta- awake, small fast waves
 Sleep Spindles- short burst of distinctive brain wave activity
 Delta waves- large slow, deep sleep, stage 3
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2 Types of Sleep- REM and NREM
Sleep Stage 1
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Beginning Sleep
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Breathing, pulse slow
Body temp drops
Stage 1
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Light sleep
Lose consciousness
Heart rate slows even
more
Muscles relax- may cause
Hypnic Jerk- reflex
contraction
Small irregular waves and
some Alpha waves
Stage 2 Sleep Deepens
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Body temp drops further
Sleep spindles Waves- short burst of distinctive
brain wave activity
Stage 3 Deeper Sleep
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New brain wave- Delta waves- large and slow
Stage 4- Deepest Sleep
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Delta Brain wave- large and slow
1 hour of sleep
Mostly pure Delta waves- large and slow
Shift through stages 3, 2, then 1.
REM Sleep
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Rapid Eye Movement
Found in stages 2,3,4
20% of night time sleep
90 minutes per night
Associated with
dreaming
More REM Sleep with
emotional events like,
death in family, work
trouble, marital conflict
Increases with stress
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Fast irregular EEG
pattern, very active
Areas of brain for
imagery and emotion are
more active
Heart rate increases
Sexual Arousal
Body is almost paralyzed
Fig. 7.6 (a) Average proportion of time adults spend daily in REM sleep and NREM
sleep. REM periods add up to about 20 percent of total sleep time. (b) Typical changes
in stages of sleep during the night. Notice that dreams mostly coincide with REM
periods.
Non-REM Sleep
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80 % of sleep time
Stages 1,2,3,4
Usually not dreaming
Increases after physical
exertion
May help overcome
bodily fatigue
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Sleepwalking or
Somnambulist- occurs
(usually in stage 3-4)
Sleep Deprivation=Sleep loss
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What does sleep deprivation cause?
Sleep loss typically causes:
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Mood changes, trembling hands, drooping eyes,
inattention, irritability, starving, increased pain
sensitivity, general discomfort
Maximum recorded = 260 hours without sleep
Caused Sleep Deprivation Psychosis
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Loss on contact with reality, hallucinations, confusion,
disorientation, delusions
Sleep Disturbances
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Insomnia
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Caused by stress =
temporary
Chronic
Insomnia/long term
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Treated by Stimulus
control
Create a regular
schedule and body
rhythm
Nightmares and Night
Terrors (remedy)
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Imagery rehearsal
Mentally rehearse a
changed nightmare.
Sleep Apnea
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Snoring
Stopping Breathing as
while sleeping
Brain stopping the
sending of signals
Also, blockage of air
passages
Narcolepsy
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Sudden irresistible sleep attack
Short term
Triggered by an emotional attack
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Cataplexy- sudden temporary paralysis of muscles½ of Narcoleptics have this problem
Some indication of heredity
Closely associated with REM sleep
Dreams
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Dreams occur 4-5 times per night
90 minutes apart
Range
1st dream 10 minutes
 Last dream 30 minutes
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Night Terrors
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Night Terrors: Total panic occurs; hallucinations
may occur
Occurs during Stage 4 sleep
 Most common in childhood; may occur in adults
 Not remembered
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Dreams and Meaning
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Most researchers agree that dreams reflect our waking
thoughts, fantasies and emotions
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Most people dream 4-5 times per night
Calvin Hall = dream expert
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Said dreams reflect everyday events
Emotionally important people
Actions in dreams are familiar (running, jumping, talking)
½ of all dreams have sexual elements
Anger, sadness and fear are easier to remember
Dream Theory: Psycho-Dynamic
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Freud- The Interpretation of Dreams (1900)
What are the main elements of Freud's theory?
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Said dreams are based on Wish fulfillment
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An expression of unconscious desires
Emphasis on Internal conflicts and
unconscious forces
Ideas expressed through Images/Dream
Symbols
Other Explanation for Dreams
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The Activation Synthesis
Hypothesis:
Prepared by Hobson and
McCarley
A different type of thinking
occurs as we sleep
During REM Sleep certain
brain cells are activated
The frontal area is shut down
Cortex is activated and is
significant in creating stories
and images
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Messages are blocked to the
body so no movement occurs
Cells continue to send
messages
The Brain struggles to send
messages
The brain searches through
stored memories and this
causes/makes dreams
Hypnosis
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Used as a relaxation tool
Definition: Altered state of consciousness
Narrowed attention
 Increased openness to suggestion
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Alternate definition: “Merely a blend of
conformity, relaxation, imagination, obedience,
suggestion and role playing.”
Hypnosis History
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Mesmer- early charlatan = mesmerize = to
hypnotize
1700- used suggestion
Hypnotic Susceptibility
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Key component
Associated with how easily a person can be
hypnotized
8 out of 10 people can be hypnotized
4 of 10 will be good subjects
Must be willing
 Imaginative and prone to fantasy
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How to Hypnotize
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Focus attention
Relax and feel tired
Let go + accept suggestions
Use vivid imagination
Must cooperate to be hypnotized
How does Hypnosis function?
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Suggestions alter:
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Sensations, perceptions, thoughts, feelings and
behavior
Basic Suggestion Effect:
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Tendency of hypnosis to carryout suggested actions
as if they were involuntary
Hypnosis and Dissociation
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There may be split awareness
Or
Hidden Observer Effect- the detached par tof
the hypnotized person that silently observes
Effects of Hypnosis
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No superhuman acts of strength
Memory can be enhanced but not reliably
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False memories
Some amnesia during hypnosis
Can relieve some pain
Age regression is possible but skeptical due to
suggestion
Sensory changes can be effected- smell, color
vision, hearing, also illusions
Sensory Deprivation (SD)=(ASC)
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Refers to major reduction in the amount of sensory
stimulation
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Sight, sound…
Causes misjudgment of time
Trouble concentrating
Visual illusions
Slower reactions
Hypnogogic images- vivid surprising images
Similar to theta waves
Why do people use drugs?
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Curiosity,
Peer pressure to belong
Escape
Feelings of inadequacy…
Best predictor of adolescent drug
use and abuse:
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Having friends who use drugs
Parental drug use
Delinquency
Troubled family life
Poor self esteem
Social nonconformity
Stressful life changes
Taking drugs is a symptom of
maladjustment- not necessarily a cause.
Description of adolescents who use drugs:
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Maladjusted
Alienated
Impulsive
Emotionally distressed
Anti-social behavior
School failure
Risky sexual behavior
People use drugs to cope with life
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Drugs produce immediate feelings of pleasure
“Feel good on demand”
Consequences are delayed
This dynamic creates a compulsion to take drugs
Lifestyle problems result from the habit and
effects of the drug use