Marijuana-Induced Psychosis

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Transcript Marijuana-Induced Psychosis

Marijuana-Induced
Psychosis
Archana Balasubramanian
Jennifer Lee
Yousuf Mostafa
Outline
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Introduction (Yousuf)
Psychosis and Consciousness (Yousuf)
Marijuana and its Effects (Jennifer)
Marijuana-Induced Psychosis (Archana)
Marijuana-Induced Psychosis and
Consciousness (Archana)
 Conclusion (Jennifer)
What is Psychosis?
 Definition –
severe mental
disorder, with or
without organic
damage,
characterized by
derangement of
personality and
loss of contact
with reality and
causing
deterioration of
normal social
functioning
Psychosis Continued
 From the encyclopedia we see that
psychosis is a psychiatric classification
for a mental status in which the
perception of reality is distorted.
 Again confirming that it can be argued
that it is an alternative state of
consciousness
Psychosis and Disease
 Psychosis can be a feature of several
diseases, suggesting that a variety of
nervous system stressors can lead to a
state of psychosis.
Non-psychiatric
Conditions
But there are some non-psychiatric
conditions that can cause psychosis
 Brain Tumor
 Hyperglycemia
 Intoxication
 Multiple Sclerosis
 Sarcoidosis
Altered State of
Consciousness Therapy
 This is a program, ASCT, which helps teach
patients how to consciously manipulate their
affect and cognition to achieve a new state of
consciousness.
 Marijuana Anonymous directs its members
toward an altered state of consciousness
called a spiritual awakening but relapse occurs
because of the failure to help members reach
that altered state of consciousness without the
need of drugs
What is Marijuana?
 Common name for drug made from plant
Cannabis sativa
 Mind-altering ingredient THC (delta 9
tetrahydrocannabinol)
 Today’s marijuana is ten times more potent
than what was used in the 1970s
Short Term Effects
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Faster heartbeat
Faster pulse rate
Bloodshot eyes
Dry mouth and throat
Sleepiness
Decreased social
inhibitions
 Impaired or reduced
comprehension
 Paranoia
 Increased anxiety or
panic attacks
 Impair short term
memory, alter sense of
time
 Reduced concentration,
swift reactions,
coordination
Long Term Effects
 Increased risk of cancer
 Decreased testosterone levels and lower
sperm count for men
 Increased testosterone levels in women
and risk of infertility
 Diminished or extinguished sexual
pleasure
 Psychological dependence
Variables
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Amount taken
Potency
Type of consumption (joint, bong, food)
Size, weight, health of individual
Prior individual experience
Taken alone or in group
Effects on Brain
 THC -> sensory information ->
hippocampus
 Limbic system -> crucial for learning,
memory, integration of experiences
 Neurons in hippocampus and nerve
fibers
 Long term use produces changes in brain
similar to other drug abuse cases
Benefits
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Multiple Sclerosis
Glaucoma
Nausea caused by chemotherapy
Cancer
Epilepsy
Chronic pain
Marijuana Induced
Psychosis
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Amount
Intoxication
Frequency
Past history
Hallmark Symptoms
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Hallucinations
Delusions
Depression
Paranoia
Anxiety
 Decreased social
ability
 Lack of volition
 Apathy
 Memory loss
Subtypes of Psychosis
I. Toxic
 Confusion
 No prior history of
psychosis
 Recovery
 THC levels
II. Functional
 No confusion
 Prior history of
psychosis
 Symptoms similar to
schizophrenia
Neural Correlates
 THC
 CB1 receptor
 D1 receptor -> DA transmission
 The effects of Cannabis-based medication
Marijuana Induced
Psychosis: An ASC
 Characterized by:
 Mild memory impairments
 Distorted sense of the passage of time
 Dream like euphoria
 Lose contact with reality
 Lose sense of control
 Depersonalization
Long term Effects
 Mild Impairment in Consciousness
 Chronic Psychosis after abstinence
 A higher risk for Schizophrenia?
 Amotivational Syndrome
 Anhedonia
 Apathy
 Memory Loss
 Paranoid Ideation
Personal Accounts
“The effects of this drug made me socially paranoid for
months until I finally managed to stop smoking it with
the help of my girlfriend.”
“ My son is one of the 10% or so that should not smoke
marijuana because they become delusional. They turn
paranoid and think people are after them and want to
kill them, even workmates. It places unbearable
pressure on families. Please note that not all are
schizophrenic.”
Treatment of MJ Induced
Psychosis
 Abstinence from Marijuana Use
 Neuroleptics
 Antidepressants
Conclusion
 Marijuana and Culture
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War on Drugs (Type 1 Drug)
Organizations for Legalization
Controversial Medicinal Use
Youth and Drugs
References
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Boettcher, Dr. Brian. “Cannabis Psychosis” http://www.priory.com/psych/cannabis.htm
“Cannabis law changes - have your say.” Newsbeat January 22, 2004.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio1/news/newsbeat/040122_cannabis_feedback.shtml
“Cannabis use and psychosis explained” Better Health Channel
http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/BHCLang.nsf/(LevelFour)/DE7359E9B719779E4A256B640083BBC5
?Open
Clarke, Isabel. “Psychosis and Spirituality. Finding a Language.” June 2005.
http://www.scispirit.com/Psychosis_spirituality/finding_a_language.htm
Edwards, Mark. “An Alternative View on States.” June 2005. http://www.integralworld.net/edwards14x.html
Fact Sheet – Marijuana www.well.com/user/woa/fspot.htm
John, Andrew. 2001. Psychiatric Effects of Cannabis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 178. p. 116-122.
“More evidence of cannabis-induced psychosis” March 31, 2005 http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/200503/bc-meo033005.php
National Institute on Drug Abuse http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofacts/marijuana.html
Nationmaster Encyclopedia. May 2005. Online Encyclopedia
http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Psychosis
“Re: Cannabis Induces Psychosis.” Yahoo Australia and NZ Message boards. March 25, 2005
http://au.messages.yahoo.com/news/top-stories/3106/.
Sharpe (MD), Joseph. “Marijuana Induced Psychosis.”
http://psychiatry.mc.duke.edu/Residents/substance.html
Wo/Man’s Alliance for Medicinal Marijuana http://www.wamm.org/medicinalbenefits.htm