Transcript Slide 1

Chapter 5: States of
 The awareness of
thoughts, and
feelings being
experienced at a
given moment
– Waking
– Altered states of
Stages of Sleep
 Stage 1
– The stage of transition
between wakefulness and
sleep that is characterized
by relatively rapid, low
voltage brain waves
 Stage 2
– Characterized by a slower,
more regular wave pattern
and momentary
interruptions of sharply
pointed spiky waves called
sleep spindles
Stages of Sleep
 Stage 3
– Waves become slower, with
higher peaks and lower
valleys in the wave pattern
 Stage 4
– Waves are even slower and
more regular, and people
are least responsive to
outside stimulation
The Sleep Cycle
REM Sleep:
The Paradox of Sleep
 Sleep that occupies a
little over 20% of adult’s
sleeping time and is
characterized by
Rapid eye
Increased and
irregular heart rate
Increase in blood
Increase in
breathing rate
Erections in males
accompanied by
Person’s body is
REM Sleep:
The Paradox of Sleep
The Function and Meaning of
 Unconscious wish fulfillment theory
(Freud 1900)
– Proposed that dreams represented
unconscious wishes that dreamers
desire to see fulfilled
 Latent content refers to the “disguised”
meaning of the dream
 Manifest content refers to the actual
story line of the dream
The Function and Meaning of
 Dreams-for-survival
– Dreams permit
information that is
critical for our daily
survival to be
reconsidered and
reprocessed during
The Function and Meaning of
 Activations-synthesis theory
– The brain produces random
electrical energy during REM
sleep that stimulates memories
lodged in various portions of the
brain which are put together to
make a logical story line
Sleep Disturbances
 Insomnia
 Sleep apnea
 Sudden infant
death syndrome
 Narcolepsy
 Sleepwalking
Therapy For Insomnia
Exercise during the day
Choose a regular bedtime
Don’t use your bed as an all purpose area
Avoid caffeine after lunch
Drink a glass of warm milk at bedtime
Avoid sleeping pills
Try not to sleep
Talk yourself into sleeping
Circadian Rhythms: Life Cycles
 Biological
processes that
occur repeatedly on
a 24-hour
– Seasonal
– Jet lag
 Hypnosis
– Originated by Franz Mesmer in the 18th
century, it is described as being in a trancelike state of heightened susceptibility to the
suggestion of others
 Applications
– Control pain, reduce smoking, treating
psychological disorders, assisting law
enforcement, improving athletic performance
 Meditation
– A learned technique for
refocusing attention that
brings about an altered
state of consciousness
 Mantra
– Repetition of a word, a
sound, or a syllable
Drug Use: The Highs and Lows
of Consciousness
 Psychoactive drugs
– Influences a person’s emotions,
perceptions, and behavior
 Addictive drugs
– Produce a biological or psychological
dependence in the user, and withdrawal
from them leads to a craving for the drug
that, in some cases, may be nearly
– Biologically and psychological based
Stimulants: Drug Highs
 Affect the central nervous system by
causing a rise in heart rate, blood pressure,
and muscular tension
– Caffeine
– Nicotine
– cocaine
– Amphetamines
 Methamphetamine– most dangerous street drug
Stimulants: Drug Highs
 How much caffeine do you consume?
Depressants: Drug Lows
 Impede the nervous system by causing neurons to
fire more slowly
– Alcohol
 Rohypnol
 Binge drinking
– Barbiturates
 Nembutal
 Seconal
 Phenobarbital
Depressants: Drug Lows
Relieving Pain and Anxiety
 Increase relaxation and relieve pain and
 Heroin
– Methadone treatment
 Morphine
Hallucinogens: Psychedelic Drugs
 Drugs that are capable of producing
hallucinations, or changes in the perceptual
– Marijuana
– MDMA (Ecstasy)