HIV/AIDS: Basic Definitions

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Transcript HIV/AIDS: Basic Definitions

HIV/AIDS: Basic
Information and
Terminology
Charlene J. Vetter
University at Buffalo
Department of Counseling, School, and Educational
Psychology
Center for the Development of Human Services
© 2004 CDHS College Relations
Group Buffalo State
College/SUNY at Buffalo
Research Foundation
What is HIV?
 HIV
Stands for Human Immunodeficiency
Virus
 HIV is a virus that attacks the immune
system
 An individual can be infected with HIV
without showing symptoms
 An HIV test is the only way to know if HIV
is present in the body
© 2004 CDHS College Relations
Group Buffalo State
College/SUNY at Buffalo
Research Foundation
How does a person become
infected with HIV?
 You
can only get HIV if infected blood,
semen, vaginal fluids, or breast milk gets
into your body
 HIV
is NOT transmitted through casual
contact (e.g. you CANNOT be infected by
sharing drinking glasses or using public
bathrooms)
© 2004 CDHS College Relations
Group Buffalo State
College/SUNY at Buffalo
Research Foundation
Who is most at risk for HIVinfection?

People who have "unprotected sex" with someone who
has HIV. Unprotected sex means vaginal, anal, or oral
sex without using a condom.
 People who share needles, syringes, or other
equipment to inject drugs, steroids, or even vitamins or
medicine with someone who has HIV.
 Babies can potentially become infected during their
mother's pregnancy, during delivery, or after birth in
the immediate postpartum period. They can also
become infected through breastfeeding.
 Health care and maintenance workers who may be
exposed to blood and/or body fluids at work sometimes
get infected through on-the-job exposures like needlestick injuries. © 2004 CDHS College Relations
Group Buffalo State
College/SUNY at Buffalo
Research Foundation
Prevalence in the U.S.

An estimated 850,000--950,000 persons in the
United States are living with human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV), including
180,000--280,000 who do not know they are
infected.
 The cumulative estimated number of diagnoses
of AIDS through 2003 in the United States is
929,985. Adult and adolescent AIDS cases total
920,566 with 749,887 cases in males and
170,679 cases in females. Through the same
time period, 9,419 AIDS cases were estimated in
children under age 13 (CDC, 2004)
© 2004 CDHS College Relations
Group Buffalo State
College/SUNY at Buffalo
Research Foundation
What is AIDS?



AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
AIDS is a late stage of HIV Disease
According the Center for Disease Control a person has
AIDS if they:
have a CD4 cell count (a way to measure the strength
of the immune system) that falls below 200. A normal
CD4 cell count is 500 or higher.
OR
develop any of the specific, serious conditions - also
called AIDS-defining illnesses - that are linked with HIV
infection (see slide 7 for further explanation)
© 2004 CDHS College Relations
Group Buffalo State
College/SUNY at Buffalo
Research Foundation
What are AIDS-Defining Illnesses?
A condition (e.g., Pneumocystis carinii
pneumonia, toxoplasmosis, Kaposi's
sarcoma) that is included in the Center for
Disease Control and Prevention's CDC
definition of AIDS (i.e. a person is
considered to have AIDS if he/she has or
has had one of these illnesses)
© 2004 CDHS College Relations
Group Buffalo State
College/SUNY at Buffalo
Research Foundation
An AIDS Diagnosis is Permanent
Once a person is diagnosed as having
AIDS (due to CD4 cell count below 200 or
having an AIDS-defining illness), they
remain in this diagnostic category (e.g.
if CD4 cell count fluctuates above 200
after AIDS diagnosis, a person is still
considered to have AIDS)
© 2004 CDHS College Relations
Group Buffalo State
College/SUNY at Buffalo
Research Foundation
What is AIDS-Related Complex
(ARC)
ARC is early Symptomatic HIV infection
defined as:
 1. A group of common complications
found in early stage HIV infection. They
include , recurrent fever, unexplained
weight loss, swollen lymph nodes,
diarrhea, herpes, fungus infection of the
mouth and throat and/or the presence of
HIV antibodies.

© 2004 CDHS College Relations
Group Buffalo State
College/SUNY at Buffalo
Research Foundation
ARC Continued
 2.
Symptoms that appear to be related
to infection by HIV. They include an
unexplained, chronic deficiency of white
blood cells (leukopenia) or a poorly
functioning lymphatic system with swelling
of the lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy)
lasting for more than three months without
the opportunistic infections required for a
diagnosis of AIDS
© 2004 CDHS College Relations
Group Buffalo State
College/SUNY at Buffalo
Research Foundation
What is an Opportunistic Infection?
 An
illness caused by a microorganism that
usually does not cause disease in persons
with healthy immune systems, but which
may cause serious illness when the
immune system is suppressed. Common
OI in HIV positive people include
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP),
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and
cytomegalovirus
(CMV)
infection.
© 2004 CDHS
College Relations
Group Buffalo State
College/SUNY at Buffalo
Research Foundation
What are AIDS-related Cancers?
Several cancers are more common or
more aggressive in persons living with
HIV. These malignancies include certain
types of immune system cancers known
as lymphomas, Kaposi's Sarcoma, and
anogenital cancers that primarily affect the
anus and the cervix. HIV, or the immune
suppression it induces, appears to play a
role in the development
of these cancers.
© 2004 CDHS College Relations
Group Buffalo State
College/SUNY at Buffalo
Research Foundation
What is AIDS Dementia Complex?
 HIV-associated
dementia or HAD is a
degenerative neurological condition
attributed to HIV infection, characterized
by a group of clinical presentations
including loss of coordination, mood
swings, loss of inhibitions, and widespread
cognitive dysfunction. It is the most
common central nervous system
complication© 2004
of CDHS
HIV
infection
College
Relations
Group Buffalo State
College/SUNY at Buffalo
Research Foundation
What treatments are available for
the HIV-infection?
 There
is currently no cure for the HIV
virus
 There are 3 classes of drugs currently
being used to attempt to slow the spread
of HIV in the body :
1)nucleoside analogue reverse
transcriptase inhibitors, such as AZT
© 2004 CDHS College Relations
Group Buffalo State
College/SUNY at Buffalo
Research Foundation
Treatments Continued:
2)non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase
inhibitors (NNRTIs), such as nevirapine
3)Protease inhibitors such as saquinavir,
indinavir
© 2004 CDHS College Relations
Group Buffalo State
College/SUNY at Buffalo
Research Foundation
What is HAART?
 HAART
stands for Highly Active
Antiretroviral Therapy, a term for
aggressive anti-HIV treatment.
 HAART
involves the use of a combination
of a minimum of 3 anti-HIV medications
(commonly called an HIV “cocktail”)
© 2004 CDHS College Relations
Group Buffalo State
College/SUNY at Buffalo
Research Foundation
What are the Side Effects of HIV
Medications?
 Side
effects are highly variable across
individuals and range from mild to severe
 Common
side effects of HAART (the most
commonly used treatment approach)
include fever, nausea, diarrhea, fatigue,
liver problems, diabetes, fat
maldistribution, high cholesterol,
decreased bone density
© 2004 CDHS College Relations
Group Buffalo State
College/SUNY at Buffalo
Research Foundation
Does HAART Help HIV-Positive
People Live Longer?

The success of HAART varies from person to
person
 Many variables affect treatment outcomes
(e.g., timing of start of treatment, ability to
tolerate drug side effects, strict adherence
to drug regimens)
 For many HIV-positive individuals, HAART
has been shown to slow the progression to an
AIDS diagnosis©and
prolong
their life expectancy
2004 CDHS
College Relations
Group Buffalo State
College/SUNY at Buffalo
Research Foundation
Challenges of Living with HIV/AIDS
 Adherence
to treatment programs
rigorous drug regimens must be strictly
followed for treatment to work
 Anxiety/Stress/Depression caused by
unpredictable course of illness/treatment
outcomes/side effects of treatment
 Financial burden of expensive
treatment/need for medical insurance
coverage © 2004 CDHS College Relations
Group Buffalo State
College/SUNY at Buffalo
Research Foundation
Challenges of Living with HIV/AIDS
(Cont.)
 Coping
with stigma, discrimination
 Coping with consequences of disclosing
HIV positive status to family, friends,
employers
 Coping with the challenge of identifying
sources of medical, financial, social
support
© 2004 CDHS College Relations
Group Buffalo State
College/SUNY at Buffalo
Research Foundation
References
 Center
for Disease Control
(cdc.gov/hiv/dhap)
 AIDS Education Global Information
System (www.aegis.com)
 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid
Services (www.cms.hhs.gov/hiv)
 Gay Men’s Health Crisis
(www.gmhc.org)
© 2004 CDHS College Relations
Group Buffalo State
College/SUNY at Buffalo
Research Foundation