Teratogens: CNS Destruction

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Transcript Teratogens: CNS Destruction

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Persists
• Rekindling awareness
for the new
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Persists
• Research strong in 1970’s-1980’s
– Culture insures the problem persists
• Fetal damage: body, mind, social issues
– Nature insures the problem persists
• Topic bridges the gap between science,
medical, clinical, social, and practical
FAS Problem, Researchers
“Fetal alcohol
syndrome (FAS)
now is recognized
as the leading
known cause of
mental retardation
in the US,
surpassing Down
syndrome and spina
Ann Streissguth, Ph.D
Alcohol Affects Placenta
• Late-term fetus
• Placenta structure
and function
• Umbilical cord
• Alcohol reduces
oxygen to fetus
• Alcohol reduces AA’s,
glucose & vitamins
passing thru placenta
Migrating Nascent Neurons
Teratogen: Alcohol
Maternal blood alcohol concentration
Alcohol breakdown (liver) elimination
Fetus BAC
Alcohol diffusion across placenta
– High concentration to low
– No liver enzymes to breakdown alcohol
– Alcohol diffuses out when mother BAC is
lower than fetal BAC
“The Mind” FAS
Lip-Philtrum Guide
Alcohol as a Teratogen
FAS/FAE continuum: who is affected?
Agent: Alcohol
Dose: light, moderate, heavy, binge
Timing: 1st, 2nd, 3rd trimester
Genetic/metabolic factors: enzymes
Nutritional: vitamins, prenatal care
Polydrug use: smoking, others
FASD Changes
• Cognitive changes
– Intelligence
– Math weakness
• Social changes
– Several antisocial behaviors
– Prison time
• FAS induced static encephalopathy
– Several abnormalities
FASD Developmental Changes
Physical alterations:
– Face, less noticeable
– Size, smaller than average
• Cognitive changes (few alterations)
– Math problems persist
– Abstract thinking, problem solving same
• Social problems same or worse
FASD Social Challenges
Failure to consider consequences
Unresponsive to subtle social cues
Lack of friendships
Stubbornness or sullenness
Low self-esteem
Social withdrawal
Teasing or bullying
Excessive unhappiness
FASD School Challenges
Lack of initiative
Poor concentration
Poor math skills
ADHD symptoms
Adverse relationships with teachers
FASD Adult Challenges
• Delinquent behaviors
• Sexual problems
– Pregnancy, paternity
– STD’s
• Not able to find and hold jobs
• Drug use and abuse including alcohol
• Prison recidivism, est. 1/5 prisoners FAS
FAS Statistics
Over 10,000 births/day in USA
FAS births: 1/700 = 14/day
FAE disorders: 1/100 = 100/day
Over 90% FAS/FAE develop mental probs
Lifetime cost: $5M/FAS person
Taxpayers cost: $5M/day, $1.9B/year
Alternatives & Solutions
• Challenges:
– Clinicians have a good understanding of
alcohol’s ability to damage CNS
– Educators inform themselves & students
– Parental involvement = better outcomes
– Community assistance
• Living/working arrangements
• Alternatives to prison
Teacher’s Opportunities
• More info: NEW K-12 Curriculum
Available from NOFAS from CDC
education and prevention program
• PPT show package about FAS
• Resource guide for teachers working with
FAS students
• Biological Psychology can be useful
• Students will make choices
• Informed students make better choices
Off to a Great Start…
Ashley M Lorenz