Illicit Laboratories - FloridaDisaster.org

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Transcript Illicit Laboratories - FloridaDisaster.org

Florida Operations Level
Hazardous Materials Training
Unit 5.7
Illicit Laboratories
Terminal Objective

Upon completion of this unit the
participants will be able to analyze the
hazards and risks of illicit
laboratories and identify the incident
objectives for safely managing the
labs at the operations level of
response.
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Enabling Objectives
 Identify
clues to the recognition of illicit
laboratory operations
 Identify the types of illicit laboratories
 Identify the key processes that should be
identified at illicit labs
 Describe the incident objectives for
operations at illicit labs
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Florida Operations Level
Hazardous Materials Training
Introduction
4
Reasons for Illicit Laboratories
 Laboratories
may be developed and
operated for many reasons:
 Domestic
or International terrorist groups
 Antigovernment groups
 Abortion related
 Ecoterrorism
 Animal rights groups
 Illicit drug manufacturers
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Challenges
be difficult to find – hidden from view
 May be difficult to determine what final
product was intended to be during
production process
 Potential for multiple products being made
at same location
 May
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Overt Discovery
 EMS
call for sick person or difficulty
breathing
 Labs
will be tightly sealed to keep odors from
escaping and being discovered
 Odor
complaint
 Fire or explosion call
 Assistance to agencies who have
information regarding what is going on
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Covert Discovery
 Subjects
are not aware of the discovery of
the laboratory
 May be recognized during the response to
another related or un-related incident
 May be identified during an undercover
law enforcement investigation
 Require close coordination to maintain
security of information
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Potential or Actual Labs

Not all labs are illegal
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Labs not involved in illegal activity, may generate
harmful environmental waste
Response may include multiple agencies
Fire and hazardous materials
 EMS
 Law enforcement
 Health department
 Federal agencies

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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Types of Illicit Laboratories
 Explosives
 Biological
agents
 Chemical and CWA
 Drugs
 Radiological
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Key Processes Used
 Synthesis
makes a chemical from another
substance
 Extraction uses raw materials to produce
finished product
 Conversion refines raw product with
chemicals
 Fermentation is used to produce and
refine a product
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Hazards of Illicit Laboratories
 Booby
traps
 Trip
wires around site tied to explosive
device, gun, or device to ward occupants
 Boards with nails protruding in path of travel
covered with leaves or foliage
 Trigger devices attached to windows or doors
that need to be opened in a special sequence
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Hazards of Illicit Laboratories
 Explosive
ordinance
 Suspicious
packages or devices
 EOD bomb disposal personnel needed to
evaluate packages
X-ray equipment
Containment devices
PPE for blast protection
Packages and devices may be destroyed
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Hazards of Illicit Laboratories
 Fires
may occur during the cooking and
manufacturing process with multiple
hazards present
 Volatile
liquids
 Anhydrous ammonia
 Match heads
 Sodium, lithium metal
 Aerosol cans of starting fluid
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Hazards of Illicit Laboratories
 Oxidizers
may be present
 Corrosives may be present
 Flammable gases may be present
 Poison gases may be present
 Liquids may be unidentified
 Run away reactions
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Explosive Lab Recognition

Selected types
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Ammonium nitrate mixtures
Black powder
Chlorates and perchlorate mixtures
Glycerin and glycol mixtures
Peroxide mixtures
Acetone peroxide
Urea mixtures
Look for
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Fuels
Oxidizers and oxidizing acids
Grinding and mixing
Ice baths
Use of powdered metals (Al, Mg)
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Biological Lab Recognition

Selected types
Bacteria (growing)
 Toxins (growing or extracting)
 Viruses
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Look for
Intentional warm, moist, nutrient rich culturing
 Lab apparatus suggesting working with microscopic
organisms, living tissue, plants or animals

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Biological Lab Hazards
Highly toxic end products
 Precursor or reagent materials
present
 Incubators, fermentators, petri
dishes, and cultures being grown

Bacteria
 Viruses
 Toxins

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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Common Steps to a Bio Lab
Acquire
Seed Stock
Purchase
or isolate
Inoculation
Grow out
initial
materials
Scale Up /
Fermentation
Produce larger
quantities
Harvest
Remove bacteria
from media
and dry
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Finish and
Store
Powder or
freeze dry
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Toxin Production
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Extraction processes
May use columns
 Solvents
 centrifugation
 Filtration
 Drying
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Example: Ricin
Sufficient toxin in 5 seeds for 2 lethal doses
 Grind, remove oil, extract ricin, concentrate, dry and
mill to size
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Fermentation Process
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Using fermentation obtain toxins from bacteria
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Production of Virus
Viruses are cellular parasites
 Three common ways of cultivating
viruses
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Grow in embryonated eggs
 Grow in tissue cultures
 Grow in living animals
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Chemical Weapon Labs
Many times requires highly
protective operations
 Look for –
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Deliberate generation and collection
of gases
 Highly protective apparatus (gloves
boxes and nitrogen inerting
systems)
 Other situational intelligence
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Drug Lab Recognition
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People and activities
Numerous types of labs (Meth, GHB, LSD…)
Precursor materials & essential chemicals
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Cold medicines
Paint thinners, solvents
Plants
Acids and alkalis
Apparatus and processes
Intelligence
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Drug Lab Recognition
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Florida Operations Level
Hazardous Materials Training
Laboratory Apparatus
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Types of Condensers
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Distillation Process
 Separates
liquid mixtures based upon
differences in volatility and boiling point
 A physical separation not a chemical
process
 Some types
 Simple
distillation
 Fractional distillation
 Vacuum distillation
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Distillation Process
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Reflux Process
 Condensation
of vapors and return to the
liquid from which it was generated
 Enables a liquid to be “cooked” without
losing it to vapors
 Can also be used to obtain greater purity
in the distillation process
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REFLUX
CONDENSER
CONFIGURATION
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FUNNELS
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ADDITIONAL FUNNELS
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STIRRER/HOT PLATE
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Florida Operations Level
Hazardous Materials Training
Monitoring For
Hazards
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Ionizing Radiation
 Gamma
is the primary concern
 Easily
detectable and travels equally in alll
directions
 Penetrating life safety risk to personnel even
if wearing PPE and SCBA
 Alpha and beta sources present minimal risk
to personnel in PPE
 Use
scintillation detector or gamma
spectrometer
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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pH Determination
 Moistened
pH paper in air
 Red
change to vapors indicates and binary or
fuming acid
 Hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, hydroiodic
 Sulfuric, nitric, phosphoric
 Other acids that have been volatilized
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PH paper direct contact to liquids or
solids
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Chemical Warfare Agents
 May
be indicated for chemical labs of
unknown purpose
 Screening for nerve agents, blistered
agents and cyanide compounds
 Use multiple technologies due to potential
false positives
 APD
2000, HazMat CAD, M256A1 and others
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Combustible Vapors & Oxygen
 Combustible
vapors
 Most
commonly encountered hazard
 Highly volatile solvents may be used
 Oxygen
concentration
 Reduction
in concentration may indicate high
concentrations of contaminates
 Increase concentration results in significant
fire hazard
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Photo and Flame Ionization
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Photo-ionization detectors
Range 0 – 2000 units (ppm)
 Detects many large organic molecules and some
inorganics
 May be blind to smaller or diatomic molecules
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Flame ionization detector
Range 1 – 10,000 units (ppm)
 Will detect any organic compound
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Will detect trace amount of any flammable
vapors long before CGIs
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Florida Operations Level
Hazardous Materials Training
Lab Management
Considerations
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Considerations
 Joint
response
 Unified
command – law enforcement lead
agency
 Fire
department/hazardous materials
 Site
characterization
 Container identification
 Product information
 Identify storage of seized materials after
samples are taken for evidence
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Considerations
 Drug
enforcement agency (DEA) will
typically be a lead law enforcement
agency and take responsibility for disposal
of materials seized.
 FBI may be involved
 Environmental agency may have a role in
environmental crimes and site remediation
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Law Enforcement Agencies
Take responsibility to secure scene – no booby
traps for responders
 Windows of building normally covered to hide
laboratory initiatives – may be opened from
exterior
 Entrances must be checked for booby traps
 Radio frequency may trigger devices
 Instruments, like flashlights, intrinsically safe
 After scene is secured – all clear should be
called
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Scene Command Structure
A
single or unified command structure can
be utilized – depending on scope of
incident and agencies involved
 An incident action plan should be
developed unless entry must be
immediately made
 A site safety plan should be developed
and made available to all agencies
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Components of an IAP
 Incident
Action Plan forms:
 ICS 201 Incident briefing form
 ICS 202 Incident objectives form
 ICS 203 Organizational assignment list
 ICS 204 Assignment list
 ICS 205 Communications plan
 ICS 206 Medical plan
 ICS 208HM Site safety plan
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Regulatory Considerations
 OSHA
1910.120(q)(3)(i) and EPA 311
requires an incident commander to be in
charge of an incident involving a
hazardous material.
 OSHA 1910.120(q)(3)(vii) requires a
safety official to be designated who is
knowledgeable in the operations being
implemented
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Unified Command
 Unified
command should be staffed with
lead agency personnel that will have a
major role in the stabilization of the
incident.
 Law enforcement may be lead agency in
unified command structure.
 Fire, HazMat, EMS, environmental may be
in a support role
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Documentation
 As
with any incident, documentation of
activities are critical
 Personnel
operating at the scene
 Incident objectives/strategic goals and tactical
objectives
 Evidence samples – chain of custody
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Florida Operations Level
Hazardous Materials Training
Selecting PPE
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Selection of PPE
 OSHA
1910.120 (q)(3)(iv) and EPA 311
requires incident commander to require
positive pressure self-contained breathing
apparatus until such time, through the use
of air monitoring, that it is same to use a
lesser level of protection like a PAPR or
APR
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Selection of PPE
 OSHA
1910.120(q)(3)(iii) and EPA 311
requires the incident commander to
determine the appropriate level of
protective equipment to be used and to
enforce its use. As a minimum structural
firefighting equipment found in OSHA
1910.156 (e) shall be worn if the hazards
are fire.
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Evaluate Hazards Presented
and Select Appropriate PPE
– both heat and cold
 Radiation
 Asphyxiation
 Chemical
 Etiological
 Mechanical – shrapnel and falling objects
 Electrical
 Thermal
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Decontamination
 As
with any exposure to dangerous
materials a proper decontamination is
critical.
 Use
hose lines for emergency
decontamination
 Use HEPA filtered vacuum for particulate
 Use mobile or portable decontamination
stations
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Mass Decontamination
 When
large numbers of victims may have
been contaminated a mass
decontamination line should be
established
 Removal of outer garments may remove
as much as 80% of contaminant
 Moving victims through a water spray will
help remove contaminant
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Technical Decontamination
 If
Level A or B garments are used,
technical decontamination is the
appropriate method of decontamination
First wash and rinse
Second wash and rinse
Doffing of equipment
Capture decontamination water
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K9 Decontamination
 If
particulate matter is present use a
HEPA filtered vacuum to remove particles.
 Wash with soap and water
 Due to thick hair multiple washes may be
needed
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Tactical Protective Garments
 Tactical
protective garments such as
bullet resistant vests and bomb suits are
not easily decontaminated.
 They should be removed and bagged for
later decontamination at a special facility
 Leather equipment, such as belts, is easily
contaminated as leather is very porous
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Evidence Collection
 Securing
evidence is a critical part of the
investigation
 Samples taken in the contaminated area
should be packaged so that they may be
decontaminated and placed in another
package after the decon process
 Typically the evidence is processed and
decontaminated within the view of the
evidence control officer
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Twelve Step Evidence
Collection Process
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Prepare for evidence collection
Approach scene cautiously
Secure and protect scene
Conduct a preliminary survey
Evaluate physical evidence possibilities
Prepare a narrative description of scene
Photograph scene
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FBI Twelve Step Evidence
Collection Process – cont’d
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Prepare a diagram and sketch of scene
Conduct a detailed search
Record and collect physical evidence
Conduct final survey
Release scene to responsible party
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Remediation Plan
Florida DEP can provide assistance
 The lead agency will have the lead to develop a
remediation plan to render the site safe
 Scenes where waste has been dumped and
spread may take considerable time to test and
clean-up
 Local hazardous waste authorities may be able
to assist with disposal

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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Florida Operations Level
Hazardous Materials Training
Activity 5.7
Illicit labs
65
Florida Operations Level
Hazardous Materials Training
Scenario # 1
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Florida Operations Level
Hazardous Materials Training
Scenario # 2
Chemical Lab Setting
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Florida Operations Level
Hazardous Materials Training
Scenario # 3
Environmental Crime
from Illicit Lab
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Florida Operations Level
Hazardous Materials Training
Scenario # 4
Environmental Crime
from Illicit Lab
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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Summary
A.
Response to illicit laboratory incidents pose
many unknown hazards, including booby
traps.
B . The illicit operations may be discovered as
part of an emergency response for EMS,
fire,
or odor complaint.
C.
Generally the lead agency will be from law
enforcement or an environmental agency
and fire or hazardous materials will provide a
supporting role.
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Hazardous Materials Training Program
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