Transcript Drugs

A natural or synthetic substance used to
produce physiological effects in humans or
other animals.
Exists in numerous patterns depending on:
Nature of the drug,
Route and frequency of administration
An individuals rate of metabolism.
Personal characteristics of the user
His or her expectations
Societies attitudes and possible responses
Setting where drug is used.
Non drug factors include:
Continued use of a drug caused by
underlying emotional needs.
No precise way to measure the level of
psychological dependence a drug will have
on an individual.
Intensity of dependence depends on the
nature of the drug.
Drugs resulting in high degree of
Once certain drugs are taken in sufficient
doses and frequency, physiological changes
can result in continued use.
Once the drugs are abstained from
withdrawal occurs causing the individual to
become very sick.
See Table 5-1
Social impact of drug dependence is directly
related to the extent in which the drug has
become interwoven into a person’s life.
Personal health, economic relationships, and
family obligations may all suffer.
A drug that increases sleep and depresses
vital body functions such as blood pressure,
pulse rate and breathing.
Opiates-derived from Papaver somniferium
(the Asian poppy)
◦ Ex: Heroin relieves pain by depressing the central
nervous system
Synthetic Opiates- drugs that are not
naturally derived from opium.
◦ Ex: Methadone can be used to reduce a persons
desire for heroin.
A substance that induces changes in normal
thought processes, perceptions, and moods
◦ Ex: Marijuana aka Cannabis sativa contains THC
(tetrahydrocannabinol). See “Closer Analysis” pg
◦ Ex: LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) and PCP
Drugs that slow down the functions of the
central nervous system.
◦ Ex: Alcohol is overlooked as a drug quite often.
◦ Ex: Barbiturates are often taken orally and relax the
◦ Ex: Antianxiety Drugs create a relaxing tranquility
w/o impairing high thinking faculties or inducing
sleep as opposed to barbiturates.
◦ Ex: Huffing/sniffing materials containing volatile
Speeds up the central nervous system
◦ Ex: Amphetamines are taken orally and commonly
know as uppers or speed.
◦ Ex: Cocaine is extracted from leaves of Erythroxylon
coca plant which is grown in the Andes mountains
and is usually sniffed or snorted
Synthetic drugs that are often used at night
clubs etc.
MDMA aka “Ecstasy”
gamma hydroxybutyrate aka “GHB”
Rohypnol aka “Roofies”
Synthetic compounds chemically related to
the male sex hormone testosterone that are
used to promote muscle growth.
◦ Testosterone has 2 effects:
 Build muscle and promote growth of male secondary sex
Mainly abused by people who are interested
in accelerating muscle growth.
A steroid w/o harmful side effects of the
androgen drug has NOT been developed.
Federal law establishes schedules of
classification for controlled dangerous
substances on the basis of a drugs potential
for abuse, potential for physical and
psychological dependence and medical value.
See Controlled Substances Act Pg 169
Used to determine the identity of drugs
present in a sample. These tests reduce the
number of possible drugs to a small and
manageable number.
Accomplished by subjecting the substance to
color tests.
Many drugs yield characteristic colors when
brought into contact with specific chemical
There are 5 primary color test reagents:
◦ Marquis: turns purple in presence of heroin,
morphine and most opium derivatives. Becomes
orange when mixed with amphetamines and
◦ Dillie-Koppanyi: screens for barbiturates and
turns violet blue in the presence of.
◦ Duquenois-Levine: color test for marijuana and
turns purple when chloroform is added.
◦ Van Urk: turns blue-purple in the presence of
LSD. Difficult to do in field conditions.
◦ Scott Test: in the presence of cocaine a cobalt
thiocyanate solution turns blue. Adding HCl
turns the solution a clear pink, then after adding
chloroform the solution turns blue again.
A drop of chemical reagent is added to a
small quantity of drug on a microscope slide
and will produce crystals highly characteristic
of a drug.
2 Types used in drug analysis:
◦ TLC (thin layer chromatography): components of a
suspect mixture travel up a glass plate making a
series of dark and colored spots. This is compared
to a standard sample
 The plate is prepared by with a silica gel that is held to
plate by plaster of paris. A liquid sample is added to
the plate. The plate is then placed in a chamber with a
selected liquid. That liquid will move up the plate and
the components of the sample are separated. See pg
179 Fig 5-16
◦ GC (gas chromatography): separates mixtures
based on distribution b/w a stationary liquid phase
and a moving gas phase.
 Widely used b/c of its ability to resolve a complex
mixture in minutes.
 TLC and GC animations
Method used to identify a substance based on
the wavelength of light is will absorb.
2 Types used in forensic drug analysis:
◦ Ultraviolet/Visible (UV) Spectrophotometry:
 Does not provide difinitive results but used in
establishing probable drug identity.
◦ Infrared (IR) Spectrophotometry:
 Provides more complex pattern than UV b/c different
materials have distinctively different infrared spectra,
each IR spectrum is equivalent to a “fingerprint” of that
 How spectrophotometry works
Characterizes organic molecules by observing
their fragmentation pattern after their
collision with a beam of high energy electrons
Note: IR and mass spectrophotometry are
typically used to specifically identify a drug
Ensure substance is properly packaged and
well labeled for delivery to the lab.
Background info should be included.
Package must prevent loss and
Usually original packaging of the drug will
suffice for packaging.
Volatile substances must be packaged in air
tight containers