Public Procurement and Government Expenditure In which areas of

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Transcript Public Procurement and Government Expenditure In which areas of

Public Procurement and Gender
in Caribbean Development
Bridgetown, Barbados
Tuesday 14 June, 2016
By: L. Nana Oye Hesse - Bayne
.
Presentation Overview
 Conceptualizing Gender
 Gender and the Human Rights Agenda
 Public Procurement in the context of
Government Expenditure
 Gender Implications of Government Procurement
expenditure
 Why Gender is important – Caribbean experiences
 Recommendations moving forward
Defining Gender
 Social attributes and opportunities
associated with being male and female
 Relationships between women and men
and girls and boys, as well as the relations
between women and those between men.
 Socially constructed and learnt through
socialization processes
Defining Gender Cont’d
 Context/ time-specific and changeable.
 Gender determines what is expected,
allowed and valued in a women or a man in
a given context.
 Translated to responsibilities assigned,
activities undertaken, access to and control
over resources, as well as decision-making
opportunities
Gender Equality
 Equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities of
women and men and girls and boys.
 Equality does not mean that women and men
will become the same but that women’s and
men’s rights, responsibilities and opportunities
will not depend on whether they are born male
or female.
Gender Equality
 Gender equality implies that the interests, needs
and priorities of both women and men are taken
into consideration, recognizing the diversity of
different groups of women and men.
 Gender equality is not a women’s issue but
should concern and fully engage men as well as
women
Gender = Human Rights
 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), 2015
 Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination
Against Women (CEDAW),
 The Beijing Platform for Action
 The OAS/CIM Strategic Plan of Action, 2011-2016
 Quito Consensus, 2007
 Human Rights Declaration
 National Constitutions
 National Gender Policies
Public Procurement and
Government Expenditure
 Government spending accounts for 15 per
cent of the GDP of OECD countries and is as
high as 30 per cent of GDP in developing
countries (UNEP)
 In the Caribbean region over the last 2-3
years it has ranged between 11% – 20 % of
GDP (World Bank)
World Bank data on share of public
procurement in GDP for Caribbean Countries
Country
2010
2011
2012
Antigua and Barbuda
17
18
18
Bahamas
15
15
15
Barbados
19
20
18
Belize
16
16
-
Dominica
17
17
18
Grenada
16
16
16
Guyana
15
15
13
Jamaica
16
16
16
St. Kitts and Nevis
11
11
10
St. Lucia
17
16
17
St. Vincent and the
Grenadines
19
16
16
Public Procurement and
Government Expenditure
 In which areas of the economy are Government
procurement expenditures concentrated?
 How are men and women represented in these
sectors? and what are the gender issues
experienced in the sector
Areas of Frequent Government
Expenditure
Products
Services
Infrastructure
Air Conditioning
Management consultancy services Roads
ICTs
IT Consultancy services
Water and treatment facilities
Vehicles
Software
Airports
Indoor Lightening
Servers and data centre
Ports
Outdoor lightening
Electricity
Railroads and stations
Office Supplies
Couriers and postal
Buildings
Fuel
Waste management
Sewage plants
Furniture
Food and beverage catering
Schools
Apparel
Landscape
Prisons
Paper
Mobility
Power plants
Source: Handbook for the Inter-American Network on Government Procurement
Participation in Economic sectors
Sex –disaggregated participation in economic sectors of
Barbados, Belize, Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago
2012 (Belize data
available 2005)
ECONOMIC SECTOR
DOMINANT
PARTICIPATION
Agriculture, Hunting, Forestry and Fishing
Males
Mining and Quarrying
Males
Manufacturing
Males
Electricity, Gas and Water
Males
Construction
Males
Wholesale and Retail Trade and Restaurants and Hotels
Females
Transport, Storage and Communication
Males
Financing,
Insurance,
RealofEstate
Business
Services
Source: CARICOM
Gender Analysis
the CSMEand
and It’s
regional impact
Females except Belize
Labour Market
 Gender gaps in labour force participation have
been shrinking globally, in all CARICOM
countries the participation of men in the paid
labour force continues to exceed that of
women (ILO, 2014).
 Females over-represented in the service
sectors, while male participation exceeds
women the most productive sectors
contributing to GDP, and/or those targeted for
growth (Gender and the CSME, 2015)
Entry Points
 Use of Medium Small and Micro Enterprises as entry points for
small business owners to access public procurement
opportunities.
 Trinidad and Tobago National Social Development Programme
fund established for state enterprises to receive monies with the
specific mandate of targeting MSMEs for the provision of the
works and services under pre-determined thresholds.
 On July 10, 2015 the Jamaica Observer news article “passage of
public procurement legislation to benefit MSMEs”
Study on Gender and MSMEs
 St. Lucia both men and women are making considerable
contributions to local economic development in the
context of MSMEs.
 Guyana women’s access to microfinance is constrained
by factors deeply rooted in the societal role for women
and their general exclusion from business development
programmes and services
Source: Federation of Canadian Municipalities – Caribbean Local Economic Development Project (FCMCARILED)
Study on Gender and MSMEs
 Trinidad survey results of two main areas Point Fortin and
Princess Town. Point Fortin depicted to have 56% male principal
business owners, 32% female owners, Princess Town ownership
of businesses by men was 52%, 26% females
 In Jamaica many women operate businesses that are not
formally registered and as a result, they are not able to make full
use of the opportunities for business growth and expansion.
“Own Account” category (representing sole traders), 64.4% are
men
Source: Federation of Canadian Municipalities – Caribbean Local Economic Development Project
(FCM- CARILED)
Way Forward
 A gender analysis of the sectors that benefit from public
procurement is important to determine who has access and is
benefiting from the supply chain
 Taking measures to address gender inequality will enhance
productivity economic growth and development
 Equitable distribution of resources is key to sustainable
development
Recommendations
 Examine how gender inequalities are structuring the public
procurement
 Develop sex disaggregated data to assist in analysis
 Include gender indicators in monitoring and evaluating public
procurement
 Sensitization on Gender
 Mainstream gender in public procurement processes.
Thank you
 [email protected]