Transcript Chapter 10 Lecture
Latin America Today Chapter 10, Section 1: The Economy Important Vocabulary • Export: selling goods to other countries. Ex: Coffee, Sugarcane. • Campesino: rural farmers and workers. • Latifundia: large agricultural estates owned by wealthy landowners or corporations. • Minifundia: small plots of farming land. • Cash Crop: crops produced in large amounts for selling and trading. Important Vocabulary (Cont’d) • Developing Country: working towards greater manufacturing and technology use. Most Latin American nations. • Gross Domestic Product (GDP): the value of goods and services a country produced in a year. • Service Industry: those that provide a service. • Maquiladora: a factory. • Free Trade Zone: areas of a country in which there are no trade restrictions. Agriculture • Agriculture is still main supply for income. Most produce is exported. • Uneven land distribution between wealthy landowners and farmers. Long-standing economic inequality. • The mechanization of farming has led to farmers moving to cities. • Favorable temperature and fertile lands produce great cash crops. • Cattle-raising for exportation. Industry • Efforts being made for more manufacturing and industry. • Mexico’s GDP (2008): 35% manufacturing and 4% agriculture. • Service industries on the rise. Tourism has been essential. • Jamaica: expansion of telecommunications and information technology. • U.S. and Japanese firms have built manufactories, greater investments. Transportation • The topography creates difficulties in road and railroad construction. Issues of: political turmoil and lack of funds. • Pan-American Highway: from Mexico to Chile. Trans-Andean Highway: from Chile to Argentina. • Brazil built the Trans-Amazonian Highway for timber and mineral resource development. • Well-developed railway systems. Some are in disrepair. Waterways and air travel also very important. Communication & Trade • Communications: television, radio, newspapers; cellphones. • Gov’t censorship during political unrest. • Mexico and Brazil: top 10 in internet users. Growing technology. • NAFTA (1994); no trade barriers. 10-15% trade growth. • DR-CAFTA (2005); lower trade barriers between the U.S. and Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic. • Many Latin American nations have foreign debt from borrowing for industrial and economic development. Latin America Today Chapter 10, Section 2: People and Environment Important Vocabulary • Deforestation: the clearing of forests. • Sustainable Development: technological and economic growth without depleting human and natural resources. • Slash-and-burn Farming: using ash from burnt plants and trees to soil the ground. • Reforestation: planting of young trees or tree seeds. • Shantytown: slums or makeshift communities. Managing Resources • Needs for farming and ranching have cleared forests in the Amazon Basin. • Commercial logging has also led to deforestation in the Amazon. • Threats to ecosystem since half of all animals and plants are in rainforests. • Almost 20% of Amazon rainforest has been destroyed. More CO2. • There are laws mandating reforestation and conservation. Human Impacts • Rapid urbanization has exceeded available natural resources. • The rise of shantytowns/slums with people moving to cities. Unsanitary areas, disease spreading. • Rise of smog and industrial smokestack pollution with manufacturing growth. Future Challenges • There have been territorial conflicts over past 150 years over land and resources. • The physical geography makes region vulnerable to natural disasters. Gov’ts are working together with satellite imaging and computer modeling for better forecasting.