3. How is Poverty measured in Portugal - The European Anti

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Transcript 3. How is Poverty measured in Portugal - The European Anti

EAPN Capacity Building Meeting
‘POVERTY IN THE
EUROPEAN UNION
BUILDING A COMMON
VISION FOR ACTION’
Brussels, 27 September 2012
Workshop 3:
Portugal Presentation
Hélder Ferreira
Objectives
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Check EAPN analysis framework of poverty against each network point of
view in order to discuss and rebuild a common vision likely to drive our fight
in the coming years;
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Exchange information about what is happening concretely in terms of
poverty and policies implemented, also to complement picture of NRPs
presented in last EAPN Report;
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Assessment of the effectiveness of monitoring of poverty and social
exclusion at national and EU level and ideas for proposals to improve
indicators and data collection at national and EU level in the context of the
upcoming revision of indicators and data collection on poverty at EU level.
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Presentation of EAPN Portugal
• Working against Poverty and Social Exclusion for
more than 20 years (1991)
• National network with 18 District Delegations
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1. What poverty means today
• The definitions do not capture the reality of the day-today struggle of living in poverty.
• The analysis that relies on documents (EU and PT) and
statistical data doesn’t capture the reality on the ground
(ex: due to severe restrictions on income, citizens only
buy partially the medication in prescriptions or don’t even
buy them at all).
• The contribution of PEP is vital to fully understand the
reality of poverty (ex: access to basic utilities like power
and water / access to finantial services / Should internet
access be considered a basic utility?)
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1. What poverty means today
Major Causes of poverty
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Unemployment
Poor quality jobs (i.e. precarious)
Low wages / pensions / low income
Informal economy / absence of rights/social protection
Low levels of education and skills
The size and type of family
Gender
Disability or ill-health
Being a member of minority ethnic groups such as the Roma and
immigrants/ undocumented migrants
• Living in a remote or very disadvantaged community
• No access to justice
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2. Poverty today in Portugal
• Increased risk of being exposed to poverty, with the
combination of growing unemployment and cuts in
salaries, increased taxes and reduced social and
unemployment benefits;
• The rate of poverty risk of employees on behalf of
others, in Portugal, is the third largest in the European
Union and is rising: in 2010, almost 31% of employees
were considered poor or at risk of being poor.
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2. Poverty today in Portugal
• A study by the European Commission indicated that
these measures have had a disproportionately negative
impact on the poorest of the country’s population;
(Social Situation Observatory – Living Conditions and Income Distribution 2011);
• The most vulnerable social groups have been the
hardest hit by austerity measures implemented in
Portugal (particularly the children, the elderly and
Roma);
• The risk of poverty is now more and more generalized,
with increasing severity amongst the most fragile.
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2. Poverty today in Portugal
Impact of Government Policy
• An economy under structural adjustment
• Increasing tax burden and inequality
• Labour Market severely affected by unemployment and
precariousness
• A more expensive cost of living
• The non-registered economy - 25,4% of GDP in 2011
(OBEGEF, FEP, 2011), comparing to 9,4% of GDP in
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1970.
2. Poverty today in Portugal
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3. How is Poverty measured in Portugal
The National Statistics Office (INE) uses the Europe 2020
poverty target indicators - relative poverty, severe
material deprivation and low work intensity.
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3. How is Poverty measured in Portugal
Indicadores EUROPA 2020, Portugal, EU-SILC 2008-2011
Unidade: %
Ano do inquérito
2008
2009
2010
2011 (Po)
Taxa de risco de pobreza após transferências sociais
18,5
17,9
17,9
18,0
Taxa de privação material severa
9,7
9,1
9,0
8,3
Intensidade laboral per capita muito reduzida
6,3
6,9
8,6
8,2
População em risco de pobreza ou exclusão social
26,0
24,9
25,3
24,4
EU-SILC
2008
2009
2010
2011 (Po)
Po - Valor provisório
Nota: O indicador População em risco de pobreza ou exclusão social combina indicadores construídos com base em informação relativa ao ano
de referência do rendimento (Taxa de risco de pobreza e Intensidade laboral per capita muito reduzida) com um indicador com informação
relativa ao ano do inquérito (Taxa de privação material severa).
EU-SILC: Inquérito às Condições de Vida e Rendimento
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3. How is Poverty measured in Portugal
Risk of Poverty Threshold (2004 - 2010) - INE
Unit: Euros
Reference year
Risk of poverty thresholdannual (€)
EU-SILC
Po – Interim Value
2010
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
4149
4317
4386
4544
4886
4969
5207
5046
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
(Po)
(Po)
EU-SILC: Living Conditions Survey
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3. How is Poverty measured in Portugal
Indicadores de pobreza e desigualdade económica, Portugal, EU-SILC
2008-2011
Ano de referência dos dados
un.
2007
2008
Unidade: %
2009
2010 (Po)
Taxa de risco de pobreza (60% da mediana)
Antes de qualquer transferência social
%
41,5
41,5
43,4
42,5
Após transferências relativas a pensões
%
24,9
24,3
26,4
25,4
Após transferências sociais
%
18,5
17,9
17,9
18,0
Após transferências sociais (70% da mediana)
%
27,2
25,6
26,0
25,6
Após transferências sociais (50% da mediana)
%
11,9
10,8
11,3
11,1
Após transferências sociais (40% da mediana)
%
5,7
6,4
6,3
5,5
Coeficiente de Gini
%
35,8
35,4
33,7
34,2
Desigualdade na distribuição de rendimentos (S80/S20)
n.º
6,1
6,0
5,6
5,7
Desigualdade na distribuição de rendimentos (S90/S10)
n.º
10,0
10,3
9,2
9,4
Dispersão do limiar do risco de pobreza
Indicadores de desigualdade do rendimento
EU-SILC
Po - Valor provisório
2008
2009
EU-SILC: Inquérito às Condições de Vida e Rendimento
2010
2011 (Po)
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3. How is Poverty measured in Portugal
• The indicators/data do not fully portray the situation in
Portugal;
• Since the beginning of the crisis, the media has reported
situations about the evolution of over-indebtedness, food
aid requests, school support requests (including tertiary,
severely affected by a drop-out phenomenom), domestic
violence and others;
• The available statistical data gives us a delayed portray of
poverty (school drop-out), which is often incomplete
(because some of the data is dispersed or is not collected)
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3. How is Poverty measured in Portugal
• EAPN Portugal collects the existing official data, analyses
and distributes to its members documents related to the
Poverty Indicators;
• The latest update of Poverty Indicators, for Portugal and
EU, was released in August 2012;
• Indicators and Data are extensively used in workshops,
seminars, conferences and other events where EAPN
Portugal participates
• But this is not enough...
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3. How is Poverty measured in Portugal
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EAPN Portugal is also trying to develop a series of Alert Indicators (Regional
level), which were recently discussed in a recent national meeting (12-14
September 2012). The Alert indicators include, for example:
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Number de businesses at risk of closing / closed;
Number of closed NGO’s;
Number of NGO’s at risk;
Number of over-indebted families;
Number of Social Insertion Income requests;
Number of closed Social Insertion Income Protocols;
Number of food aid requests;
Number of Evictions;
Number of prescriptions partially fulfilled / non fulfilled;
Number of cases of domestic violence, prostitution and others;
Number of suicides;
Number of poverty related diseases (ex. tuberculosis);
Number of support requests at schools;
Number of signalized situations (Children and Youth Protection Comissions).
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Thank you for your attention
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