End of the Cold War

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Transcript End of the Cold War

Nixon to Carter
Nixon, Ford, & Carter
• Took office in 69 & determined conservative
• New Federalism: give back some of the power &
responsibilities to states & localities (downsize
federal gov’t)
• Had to negotiate w/
democrat controlled
Congress
• Increased spending
for Social Security,
Medicare, food
stamps
• Nixon impounded funds for some programs (later
unconstitutional)
• Late 60s & early 70s US faced stagflation: high
inflation & unemployment
• Caused by deficit spending (war & new programs),
increased international competition, new workers
(baby boomers), dependence on foreign oil
• Nixon focused more
on foreign affairs
(Vietnam, China,
USSR)
• Change from
containment to
realpolitik (more
flexible approach to
communism)
• Détente: easing of
Cold War tensions
• Nixon recognized China &
visited (wanted to take
advantage of rift
between USSR & China)
• visited Moscow & signed
SALT I (limit # of missiles)
• End of Vietnam, détente,
USSR & Chinese relations
helped him win election
of 72
• Watergate scandal led to
his downfall, resigned
before impeachment
began (74), Ford sworn in
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Ford pardoned Nixon Sep 1974 (bad PR move)
Inflation, unemployment, energy prices (OPEC) rise
Ford called on a citizen led program: WIN but failed
Cut spending, raised interest rates (worst recession
in 40 yrs)
• Battled democratic controlled Congress, vetoed 50
bills in 2 yrs
• Continued Nixon’s foreign policy w/ Kissinger’s help
• Helsinki Accords: cooperation between nations
• Cease fire ended in Vietnam (Saigon falls), problems
in Cambodia
• Carter narrowly won
election over Ford
• Used fireside chats &
honest, down to earth
style
• #1 problem: OPEC energy
crisis, 100 proposals to
Congress
• passed National Energy
Act: tax on gas-guzzling
cars, removed price
controls on oil & natural
gas, tax credit for
alternative energy
• OPEC passed another price hike & inflation soared
• Economy changing from manufacture to service
• Booming economies of W. Germany & Asian tigers
cut into US markets
• Carter promoted human rights over realpolitik, cut
nations off for human rights abuses
• Gave up control of Panama Canal to improve
relations in Latin America
• Détente ended when USSR invaded Afghanistan
• Helped to create Camp David Accords: peace
between Egypt & Israel
• Iranian students seized US embassy in Theran &
took 52 hostages , finally released in 1981 after
Reagan was sworn in (444 days)
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opter.jpg/31296833/RichardNixonHelicopter.jpg&imgrefur
lhttp://www.historycentral.com/elections/1968PresElect.jpg
csmonitor.com
asiatravel.org
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http://www.history.com/images/media/slideshow/gerald-ford/gerald-ford-salt.jpg
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milestones_energycrisis.jpg
http://www.dailyhistory.net/images/panama-canal-handover-jimmy-carter-mireya-moscoso.jpg
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Reagan to Present
Rise of Conservatism
• Taxpayers tired of costs
of entitlement programs,
loop holes in benefit
programs
• Conservative coalition
formed in mid 1960s
(business leaders, middle
class, Christian groups,
disaffected Democrats)
• Promoted: reduction in size of gov’t & spending,
family values & patriotism, lower taxes, national
defense, “judicial restraint”
• Reagan won 1980
election: hostage crisis,
weak economy, high
inflation (only 50% voted)
• Kept entitlement
programs for middle class
(Social security, Medicare,
veteran’s pensions)
• Cut 10% from other
entitlement programs:
urban transit, food
stamps, Medicaid, job
training, welfare benefits
• “Reaganomics” – focus on
supply side, lower taxes
by 25%
• Increase of defense
spending offset cuts in
other programs
• Economy turned in 1983 as consumers spent, stock
market surged
• Deficit spending continued (debt doubled)
• Deregulated some industries – airlines, savings &
loan, cut budget of EPA
• Gorbachev (USSR): promoted glasnost & perestroika,
signed INF treaty w/ Reagan
• Reagan challenged
moral legitimacy of
communist control, gave
speech at Berlin Wall
• 14 republics declared
independence, urged
eastern Europe to be
more democratic
• Extended w/ election of his VP (1988): George H.W.
Bush, more moderate democrats, Republican sweep
congressional elections
• President Bush in charge during end of Cold War
• Germany reunified,
Yugoslavia collapsed,
independence of the
Baltic states
• End of Cold War caused change in goals & policies
• Foreign aid, humanitarian aid, support of human
rights
• US became involved in other areas of world
• Persian Gulf War (1990-91) – Operation Desert
Storm, women served in combat
• President Bush (01-09): terrorist attack on US on
9/11/2001, 2nd war in Iraq, war in Afghanistan
• Patriot Act
• Increased diplomatic & military initiatives to
prevent & stop terrorist activities
1980s
• AIDS epidemic
• Abortion
• Drug Abuse: “Just say no”
campaign
• Education: “A Nation at
Risk” report
• Urban Crisis: high
unemployment, crime,
poor infrastructure, poor
schools
• Income gap between men
& women
1990s
• Clinton won election 92:
economic recession, more
moderate liberal, 3rd Party
candidate Ross Perot (19%
of vote)
• Balanced budget & had
surplus for 1st time in 30 yrs
(cut spending, lowered
taxes, tax revenue rose &
stock market)
• Reformed welfare system (ended guarantees & gave
states “block grants”)
• Signed NAFTA, later GATT
• diplomatic
relations w/
Vietnam, lifted
economic sanctions
vs. South Africa after
they ended
apartheid, NATO
action in former
Yugoslavia
Advancements & Technology
• Better access to
communication & info for
rural areas, businesses, and
consumers
• World is shrinking
(interdependence, global
information & ideas)
• Cable TV & 24 hr news
channels
• Personal computers
• Cell phones & internet
• Increase of
telecommuting, distance
learning
• Growth of service
industries & postindustrial economy
• Advances in medical
research (polio vaccine,
operating procedures
etc.)
• Outsourcing & offshoring
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http://img.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2007/04_03/911RTRS_468x683.jpg
http://cached.brentozar.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/just-say-no.jpg
http://www.gainesvilleshortsaleblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/tax-man.jpg
http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/americavotes/reagan-pin.jpeg
http://www.hamell.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/National-Debt-by-President.gif
http://laniervikings1986.com/Reagan_Gorb.jpg
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