Population, Government, and Economics - Mr. Williams

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Transcript Population, Government, and Economics - Mr. Williams

• Population – all of the
individuals of a
species that live
• Size – the overall
number of
individuals in a given
area such as a city,
state, or country
• Density – a measure of
the number of people
living in an area
(expressed as persons
per square mile of square
kilometer. species that
live together.
factors that affect density
• Birthrate – the annual
number of births per 1,000
• Deathrate – the annual
number of deaths per 1,000
• Population Counter
factors that affect density
Migration – the process of moving from one place to another.
• Immigration – the
movement of people
into a population
• Emigration – the
movement of individuals
of a population
Type of government is based on one key question:
Who governs and what is the level of
citizen participation?
There are many different
types of government. We will
only be discussing three:
• Democracy
• Monarchy
• Communism
• Government is elected by the
• Everyone who is eligible to vote has a
chance to have their say over who runs
the country.
• It is distinct from governments
controlled by a particular social class or
group (aristocracy; oligarchy) or by a
single person (despotism; dictatorship;
• A democracy is determined either
directly or through elected
• A monarchy has a king, queen,
emperor or empress.
• The ruling position can be passed on
to the ruler’s heirs.
• Two types:
• Traditional monarchy - the monarch has
absolute power
• Constitutional monarchy (like the UK)
also has a democratic government that
limits the monarch’s control.
• In a communist country, the
government owns property such as
businesses and farms.
• It provides its people’s healthcare,
education, and welfare.
• Singing History Teachers
Economy – a system for
producing, distributing, and
consuming goods and services.
• Goods – products that are made to be
• Ex: cars, baskets, computers, paper, clothes
• Services – work done or duties
performed for other people
• Ex: work of a doctor, janitor, beautician
• Producers – people who makes products
or offers services that are used by other
• Ex: factory worker, doctor, janitor
• Consumers – people who buy or use
goods and services
• Ex: everyone who buys anything
• There are many different
kinds of economies
around the world. Most
of them fall into 3 basic
• Traditional Economy
• Command Economy
• Market Economy
• Traditional Economy – A system in
which the allocation of resources
and other economic activities are
affect by ritual, custom, or habit.
• Example – The Tuareg of the Sahara
• Nomadic herders who travel about the
region in search of food and water for
their animals. They produce most of
the things they need and trade with
others for what they need and cannot
• Command Economy – A system organized
around a central authority which makes most
of the major economic decisions. The
government decides what products are
made, how much is produced, and what the
goods cost.
• Example – Cuba’s economy.
• Most of the means of production are owned and
run by the government, and most of the labor
force is employed by the state.
• In 2000, 76% of people were employed by the
state and only 23% were employed by private
• The Cuban government sets most prices and
rations goods to citizens.
• Market Economy – A system in which
individuals depend on supply, demand, and
prices to determine the answers to the 4
economic questions of:
Think about it . . .
Why would consumers be important
to a market economy?
What to produce?
How to produce?
Amount to produce?
And for whom to produce?
• Most businesses privately owned
• When a company sells its products, it earns
a profit. Owners decide how to use profits
and how much to pay workers.
• Example: The U.S.A.’s free enterprise system
• Singing History Teachers
Other terms to know
• Gross Domestic Product (GDP) – The
value of all goods and services
produced within a country in a single
• Developed Countries – countries with
strong economies and a high quality
of life
• Developing Countries – countries with
less productive economies and a
lower quality of life