Unit9RestofHistory - New Smyrna Beach High School

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Transcript Unit9RestofHistory - New Smyrna Beach High School

Section 1
The Nixon Administration
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Confronting a Stagnant Economy
The Causes of Stagflation
• Stagflation—combination of high inflation, high
unemployment
• Inflation result of LBJ’s deficit spending on war,
social programs
• Unemployment from more international trade, new
workers
• Rising oil prices, U.S. dependence on foreign oil
add to inflation
• Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
(OPEC) controls prices
Nixon Battles Stagflation
• Nixon tries different strategies; none have much
success
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Détente: Nixon’s Foreign Policy Triumphs
Kissinger and Realpolitik
• Henry Kissinger—national
security adviser, later
secretary of state
• Realpolitik—foreign policy
based on power issues, not
ideals, morals
• Realpolitik calls for U.S. to
confront powerful nations,
ignore weak
• Nixon, Kissinger follow
policy of détente—easing
Cold War tensions
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Nixon Visits China
• 1971, Nixon’s visit to China a
huge success; U.S., China
agree to:
• - cooperate over disputes,
have scientific, cultural
exchange
• Takes advantage of rift
between China,
Soviet Union
Nixon Travels to
Moscow
• 1972, Nixon visits Moscow;
he, Brezhnev sign SALT I
Treaty:
- Strategic Arms Limitation
Talks limit missiles to 1972
levels
• Foreign policy triumphs,
expected Vietnam peace
help win reelection
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Watergate:
Nixon's Downfall
President Richard Nixon’s involvement in the
Watergate scandal forces him to resign from office.
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Watergate: Nixon’s Downfall
President Nixon and His White House
An Imperial Presidency
• Depression, WW II, Cold War make executive
most powerful branch
• Nixon expands presidential powers, ignores
Congress
The President’s Men
• Nixon has small, loyal group of advisers; like him,
desire secrecy
- H. R. Haldeman, White House chief of staff
- John Ehrlichman, chief domestic adviser
- John Mitchell, Nixon’s former attorney general
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The Drive Toward Reelection
A Bungled Burglary
• Committee to Reelect the
President (CREEP) break into
Democratic headquarters
• Watergate scandal is
administration’s attempt to
cover up break-in
- destroy documents, try to stop
investigation, buy burglars’
silence
• Washington Post reporters, Bob
Woodward and Carl Bernstein
link administration to break-in
• White House denies allegations;
little public interest in charges
• Nixon reelected by landslide
over liberal Democrat George
McGovern
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The Cover-Up Unravels
The Senate Investigates Watergate
Image
• Judge John Sirica presides burglars’ trial,
thinks did not act alone
• Burglar leader James McCord says lied under
oath, advisers involved
• Nixon dismisses White House counsel John
Dean; others resign
• Senator Samuel J. Ervin heads investigative
committee
Startling Testimony
• Dean declares Nixon involved in cover-up
• Alexander Butterfield says Nixon tapes
presidential conversations
Continued . . .
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The Saturday Night
Massacre
• Special prosecutor Archibald Cox
subpoenas tapes; Nixon refuses
• Nixon orders Cox fired, attorney
general Elliot Richardson refuses
• Saturday Night Massacre:
Richardson resigns; deputy
refuses, fired
• Cox’s replacement, Leon
Jaworski, also calls
for tapes
• Vice President Spiro Agnew
resigns, revealed
he accepted bribes
• Nixon nominates, Congress
confirms Gerald R. Ford as vicepresident
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The Fall of a President
Nixon Releases the Tapes
• March 1974, grand jury
indicts 7 presidential aides
- charges: conspiracy,
obstruction of justice,
perjury
• Nixon tells TV audience
he is releasing edited
transcripts
• July, Supreme Court rules
unanimously Nixon must
surrender tapes
Continued . . .
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continued
The Fall of a President
The President Resigns
• House Judiciary Committee approves 3 articles
of impeachment
- formal accusation of wrongdoing while in office
- charges: obstruction of justice, abuse of power,
contempt of Congress
• Nixon releases tapes; show knows of
administration role, cover up
• Before full House votes on impeachment, Nixon
resigns
The Effects of Watergate
Image
Chart
• 25 members of administration convicted, serve
prison terms
• Loss of faith in US government
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Nixon Resigns, August 9, 1974
The Ford and Carter Years
Ford Travels a Rough Road
“A Ford, Not a Lincoln”
• September 1974, new president
Gerald R. Ford pardons Nixon
• Tries to move country past
Watergate; loses much public
support
Ford Tries to “Whip” Inflation
• Unsuccessfully asks public to cut back
use of oil, gas, save energy
• Cuts government spending; urges
higher interest to restrict credit
• “Tight money” policy triggers recession
• Continually battles Democratic
Congress with own economic
agenda%
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Carter Enters the White House
Mr. Carter Goes to
Washington
• Jimmy Carter promises to
restore integrity to presidency
- defeats Ford by narrow
margin
• Has down-to-earth style;
holds “fireside chats” on radio,
TV
• Does not make deals with
Congress; relies on Georgia
advisers
• Both parties in Congress join
to sink Carter budgets, major
reforms
Carter’s Domestic
Agenda
Confronting the Energy Crisis
• Carter offers energy proposals; oil-, gas-producing
states, auto makers resist
• National Energy Act—encourages conservation,
U.S. energy sources
• National Energy Act, conservation cut foreign oil
dependence
Image
The Economic Crisis Worsens
• Violence in Middle East creates fuel shortage;
OPEC raises prices
• Carter tries various methods, none work; gives
“malaise” speech
• 1980 inflation 14%, standard of living drops;
people lose confidence
Continued . . .
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Where do these terms come from?
• Birth control, Ho Chi Minh, Richard Nixon
back again
Moonshot, Woodstock, Watergate, punk rock
Begin, Reagan, Palestine, Terror on the airline
Ayatollah's in Iran, Russians in Afghanistan
continued
Carter’s Domestic Agenda
A Changing Economy
• From 1950s automation, foreign competition reduce
manufacturing jobs
• Service sector expands, higher paying jobs require
education, skills
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A Human Rights Foreign Policy
Advancing Human Rights
• Carter’s foreign policy promotes human rights—basic freedoms
• Cuts off aid to some, not all, allies that mistreat own citizens
Yielding the Panama Canal
• Panamanians resent having country split in two by foreign power
• 1977 treaty gives control of canal to Panama on Dec. 31, 1999
• Agreements improve relations between U.S., Latin America
The Collapse of Détente
•
•
•
•
Carter’s insistence on human rights strains relations with U.S.S.R.
SALT II talks delayed; Carter, Brezhnev finally sign June 1979
SALT II meets sharp opposition in Senate
December, Soviets invade Afghanistan; Carter lets SALT II die
Triumph and Crisis in the Middle East
The Camp David
Accords
• 1978 Carter hosts talks
between Anwar elSadat, Menachem Begin
• Camp David Accords
forge peace between
Israel, Egypt:
- Israel withdraws from
Sinai Peninsula
- Egypt recognizes
Israel’s right to exist
The Iran
Hostage Crisis
• Ayatollah Khomeini leads
overthrow of shah
- establishes Islamic state
• Carter supports shah; allows
him entry to U.S. for cancer
treatment
• Students seize U.S.
embassy, take 52 hostages;
demand shah back
• Carter refuses; standoff
ensues; intense secret
negotiations follow
• Captives released Jan.
1981, shortly after Ronald
Reagan sworn in
Happy Death to America Day!!!
(November 4) US is the Great Satan
"The idea that religion and politics don't
mix was invented by the Devil to keep
Christians from running their own
country."
The Conservative Coalition
• Business, religious, other groups form
conservative coalition
• Conservative periodicals, think tanks discuss,
develop policies
• Goals are small government, family values,
patriotism, business
The Moral Majority
• 1970s religious revival uses TV, radio; strong
among fundamentalists
• Jerry Falwell’s Moral Majority—Christians for
traditional morals
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Conservative Policies
Under Reagan and Bush
“Reaganomics” Takes Over
Reagan’s Economic Policies
• Reagan encourages private investment by cutting
federal government
• Reaganomics: budget cuts, tax cuts, increased
defense spending
Budget Cuts
• Maintains entitlement programs that benefit
middle class
• Cuts programs that benefit poor, urban population
Continued . . .
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Tax Cuts
• Supply-side economics holds that lower taxes
result in:
- investment, greater productivity, more supply,
lower prices
• Congress decreases taxes by 25% over 3 years
Increased Defense Spending
• Defense Dept. budget almost doubles; offsets
cuts in social programs
• Reagan asks scientists for Strategic
Defense Initiative
- anti-missile defense system
- supposed to be able to shoot nuclear missiles out
of the sky from space
with lasers
- is it possible?
- press dubs it "Star Wars"
-A lot of money spent, was it practical or did it
help win the Cold War
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Recession and Recovery
• July 1981–Nov. 1982, worst recession
since Great Depression
• Early 1983 consumer spending fuels
economic upturn:
- more consumer confidence, decrease
in inflation, unemployment
• 1987, market crashes, then recovers,
continues up
The National Debt Climbs
• Spending outstrips revenues; new 1982
taxes do not balance budget
• National debt almost doubles by end of
Reagan’s first term, triples by the end of
the presidency
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Social Concerns
in the 1980s
Health, Education, and
Cities in Crisis
Health Issues
• AIDS (acquired immune deficiency
syndrome) caused by virus
- destroys immune system, makes body
prone to infections, cancer
• 1980s, epidemic grows; increasing
concern over prevention, cure
Abortion
• 1980s, battle over abortion
intensifies
- opponents are pro-life; supporters
are pro-choice
• 1989, Supreme Court rules states
may place restrictions on abortion
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Foreign Policy
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Central American and
Caribbean Policy
Nicaragua
• Sandinistas—rebel group, takes
over Nicaragua; Carter sends them
aid
• Reagan calls them communists;
helps Contras—opposition forces
• 1990, Contra supporter Violeta de
Chamorro elected president
• Congress through the Boland
Amendment disallows Reagan to
help the Contras
Grenada
• 1983 Reagan sends troops; proCuba government replaced with
pro-U.S.
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Middle East Trouble Spots
The Iran-Contra Scandal
• 1983, terrorists loyal to Iran take Americans hostage
in Lebanon
• Reagan says no negotiating with terrorists; sells
arms for hostages
• Staff divert some profits to Contras; violate Boland
Amendment
• 1987, Congressional committees hold joint TV
hearings
• 1988, several staffers indicted; 1992, Bush pardons
Reagan officials
Image
Continued . . .
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Foreign Policy
After the Cold War
The Cold War Ends
Gorbachev Initiates Reform
• Mikhail Gorbachev—general secretary of Soviet
Communist Party
• Soviet economy stressed; Reagan’s defense
spending adds pressure
• Gorbachev adopts glasnost—allows criticism,
some freedom of press
• Plans perestroika—some private enterprise,
move to democracy
• Wants better relations with U.S. to cut U.S.S.R.
military spending
- arms-control INF Treaty (Intermediate-Range
Nuclear Forces Treaty)
Continued . . .
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“Mr. Gorbachev, Tear
down this wall!”
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continued
The Cold War Ends
The Soviet Union Declines
• 1991, 14 republics declare independence;
Gorbachev forced to resign
• Commonwealth of Independent States forms;
1993 START II signed
The Collapse of Communist Regimes
• Gorbachev reduces Soviet control of Eastern
Europe, urges democracy
• 1989, Berlin Wall torn down; 1990, 2 Germanys
reunited
• Czechoslovakia, Baltic states, Hungary, Bulgaria,
Romania democratic
• Ethnic civil war breaks out in Yugoslavia
Map
Continued . . .
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SECTION
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continued
The Cold War Ends
Tank Man:
1980s, China loosens business restrictions, stops price controls
Who is he?
Students demand free speech, voice in government
1989, demonstrations in Beijing’s Tiananmen Square, other cities Is he alive?
Communism Continues in China
•
•
•
• Premier Li Peng orders military to crush protesters
- unarmed students killed (200 to 1500 best guesses)
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George Herbert Walker Bush (1989
- 1993)
Foreign Policy
• 1. Invaded Panama to depose dictator and drug
kingpin Manuel Noriega.
• 2. Conducted Operation Desert Storm to oppose
Iraq's invasion of Kuwait. Liberates Kuwait, but
does not remove Saddam Hussein.
• 3. Cold War ends- Berlin Wall falls, Soviet Union
implodes, Huge Success, yet not re-elected
because of a poor economy, Clinton quote was,
“It’s the economy stupid.”
Section 1
The 1990s and the
New Millennium
The Democrats gain control of the White House by moving their
party’s platform toward the political center.
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The 1990s and the
New Millennium
Clinton Wins the
Presidency
The Election of 1992
• Pres. Bush cannot convince
public he can end recession,
create jobs
• Third-party candidate H. Ross
Perot: deficit is biggest problem
• Gov. William Jefferson Clinton
of AR first baby-boomer
president
Perot
Clinton Bush
A “New” Democrat
• Clinton moves from traditional
Democratic positions toward
center
• - wants to create “new,”
more inclusive party
• DADT- Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell,
Gays in the military
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Moderate Reform
and Economic Boom
Health Care Reform
• Clinton pledges affordable
health care, especially for
uninsured
• First Lady Hillary Rodham
Clinton heads team creating
plan
• 1993, President presents
health care reform bill to
Congress
- bill controversial, does not
get voted on
Continued . . .
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Balanced Budget and an
Economic Boom
• Clinton, Republican Congress agree
on legislation to balance budget
• Federal budget has surplus; used to
pay off national debt
• Economy booms: unemployment
drops, stocks soar, tax revenues
rise
• http://brillig.com/debt_cl
ock/
Reforming
Welfare
• 1996, states get block grants for
welfare, other social programs
- limits placed on how long people
can receive welfare benefits
• Millions of people successfully
move from welfare to work
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Crime and Terrorism
Americans Are Shocked
by Violent Events
• 1999, 2 Columbine
students kill 13, wound
23; copycat crimes follow
• 1993, terrorists bomb
World Trade Center in
NYC
• 1995, federal office
building in Oklahoma City
bombed, 168 dead
• 1990s, U.S. embassies,
military targets abroad
subject to attacks
• Lay the ground work for
9-11?
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Trade and the Global
Economy
• Clinton wants North American
Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA):
- free-trade for Canada, Mexico,
U.S; critics fear lose jobs to
Mexico
• 1999, demonstrators protest
World Trade Organization Seattle
meeting
• Anti-globalization protests held
worldwide
• Police, demonstrators clash at
2001 Summit of the Americas,
Quebec
- plans made for Free Trade Area
of the Americas by 2006
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Partisan Politics
and
Impeachment
Republicans Take Control
of Congress
• Newt Gingrich turns
unhappiness with Clinton into
Republican support
• Contract with America—
items Republicans will pass if
get elected
• 1994, Republicans win both
houses; Gingrich elected
Speaker
• Clinton, republicans clash
over budget, refuse to
compromise
• Federal government shut
down for several weeks,
winter 1995–1996
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The 1996 Election
• Budget standoff, strong
economy, welfare reform help
reelect Clinton
• Gets 49% popular vote;
defeats Senator Bob Dole, H.
Ross Perot
Clinton Impeached
• Lied under oath
about improper
relationship with
Monica Lewinsky
• House approves
impeachment
articles: perjury,
obstruction of
justice
• Trial January 1999;
Senate acquits
president
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The Race for
the White
House
Election Night Confusion
• Democrats nominate Vice
President Al Gore
• Republicans choose Texas
governor George W. Bush
• Ralph Nader, Green Party,
promote environment,
liberal causes
• Close race: Florida electoral
votes needed to win
presidency
• As votes counted, lead
shifts repeatedly between
Gore, Bush
• Bush wins by narrow
margin, triggers
automatic recount
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Dispute Rages in Florida
• Recount gives Bush narrow win
• Alleged voting irregularities in
several counties
- Gore campaign requests
manual recount in 4 Democratic
counties
“Hanging Chad”
The Battle Moves to the Courts
• Republicans sue to stop manual
recounts; court battles begin
• Supreme Court votes to stop
recounts: lack uniform standards
• Bush gets electoral votes from
Florida, wins presidency
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Societal Trends- Demographics
• US population shifts more to the South after WWII, called the Sunbelt
• American economy has seen the decline of manufacturing jobs and the rise of
service sector jobs (secretary, bank tellers, Wal-Mart, McDonalds, waitresses)
toward the end of the 20th century poorer quality of Jobs, greater gap between the
rich and poor results
• Upsurge of immigrants from Latin America, America is becoming more diverse
• “Graying of America,” the average age of America is getting older b/c of better
health care and the maturing of the baby boomers demographic, Debates about
Social Security reform
• Demographic changes intensified debates about gender roles, family structures, and
racial and national identity:
• Conservative Revolution- Led by Ronald Reagan in the 1980’s that opposed big
government and the New Deal liberalism. Championed conservative family values
and lower taxes. Jerry Falwell’s Moral Majority established.
• Supreme Court- Bakke v. California Board of Regents, Affirmative Action is
constitutional, a white University of California law student had higher test scores
than minority applicants, yet was not admitted to the school.
• Computers have revolutionized the world and
allowed information to move at the speed of light
• Globalization- the world is becoming smaller and
the culture is becoming more homogenized, like
the US, a “McWorld”
• Global Warming
• Terrorism, 9-11
• Multilateralism, the US acts with the rest of world
in foreign policy like the 1991 Gulf War, or
Unilateralism where the US invaded Iraq on its
own recently