English version - US-Vietnam Trade Council

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Transcript English version - US-Vietnam Trade Council

Workshop on Trade in Services
Demetrios J. Marantis/Pham Minh Tri
U.S.-Vietnam Trade Council
[email protected]/[email protected]
Ho Chi Minh City Law University
1 July 2003
Overview
I.
Trade in Services
II.
The Legal Rules of the GATS and BTA
III. Dispute Settlement, Regulation, WTO Accession, and
Other Issues
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I. TRADE IN SERVICES
Importance of Trade in Services
Importance of Trade in Services
Services have become critical to the world economy.
In the mid-1990’s, the service sector represented:

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almost 40 percent GDP in Uganda and Cameroon,
50 percent of GDP in Malaysia and India,
almost 60 percent of GDP in the Philippines and Peru,
almost 70 percent in Poland,
75 percent GDP in France and the United Kingdom, and
80 percent GDP in the United States
(Source: World Bank and WTO data)
4
Share of Services in Production (GDP, 2000)
(Source: World Bank, World Development Report 2002)
U
Services
P
Ph eru
ili
pp
in
es
In
di
a
M
al
ay
sia
U
ga
nd
C
am a
er
oo
n
A
ng
ol
a
ni
te
d
St
at
es
*
U
Fr
ni
an
te
ce
d
K
in
gd
om
Po
la
nd
A
rg
en
tin
a
C
ol
om
bi
a
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Industry
Agriculture
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World Export of Goods/Services (1980-2000)
Source: WTO
Goods
400
12000
350
10500
Services
9000
250
7500
200
6000
150
4500
GDP
100
3000
50
1500
20
00
98
96
94
92
90
88
86
84
0
82
0
19
80
Billion $
Goods
300
(1980=100)
Services
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Services Exports, 1990-2000
Source: WTO
Developing
countries
1990
20%
1995
Developing
countries
25%
80%
75%
Developed
Developed
Developing
countries
2000
26%
74%
Developed
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II. LEGAL RULES OF GATS & BTA
Agreements, Modes, Obligations, Commitments,
and Schedules
Key Agreements
 WTO General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS)
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Cornerstone WTO Agreement
Entered into Force in 1995
Only Multilateral Agreement on Trade in Services
Foundation and Model for Bilateral and Regional Agreements
 BTA, Chapter III
 Incorporates most of GATS
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Scope and Coverage
 Scope: covers all services (except those supplied in the
exercise of governmental authority and air traffic rights)
 Coverage: applies to 4 principal ways of delivering
services (GATS Art. I(2), BTA Ch. III, Art. 1(2)):
(1) cross-border: supply a service from one country into another (e.g.,
international telephony);
(2) consumption abroad: service consumer moves to another country
to obtain a service (e.g., tourist or patient)
(3) commercial presence: establish a local operation to supply a
service (e.g., local bank subsidiary, hotel chain);
(4) natural persons: person of one country goes to another country
temporarily to supply a service (e.g., doctor, model, teacher)
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Structure of Agreements
 Legal Rules (GATS & BTA) have 4 parts:
(1) General Provisions (apply to ALL services): e.g., MFN
(2) Specific Commitments (apply to NEGOTIATED services): e.g.,
Market Access, National Treatment
(3) Specific MFN Exemptions
(4) Special Rules for Special Services: e.g., financial, telecom
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General Provisions**
 MFN (GATS Art. II/BTA Ch. III, Art.2): treat services from all trading
partners equally (e.g., do not treat German bank better than US bank)
 Transparency (GATS Art. III/BTA Ch.VI): publish relevant laws and
regulations (e.g., publish in advance measures affecting legal sector)
 Domestic Regulation (GATS Art. VI/BTA Ch. III, Art. 4): administer
laws in reasonable, objective, and impartial manner (e.g., do not
implement insurance laws to favor one company over another)
 Monopolies (GATS Art. XVIII/BTA Ch. III, Art. 5): do not abuse
monopoly position (e.g., monopoly provider of basic telecom may not
distort competition in value-added services sector)
 Exceptions (GATS Art. XIV and XIVbis/BTA Ch. VII, Art.2/3): allows
countries to deviate from the rules in narrow circumstances (e.g.,
national security, public morals, protect health, prevent fraud)
** These provisions apply to ALL services.
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Specific Negotiated Commitments**
** Rules that apply only to services listed in a country’s “Schedule”.
A “Schedule” sets forth the specific services a country will open, the
extent of
 Market Access (GATS Art. XVI/BTA Ch. III, Art. 6)
 National Treatment (GATS Art. XVII/BTA Ch. III, Art. 7)
…and any
 Additional Commitments (GATS Art. XVIII/BTA Ch. III, Art. 8)
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Specific Negotiated Commitments:
General Layout of a Schedule
Sector
Limitations on
Market Access
(four modes of
supply)
Limitations on
National
Treatment
(four modes of
supply)
Additional
Commitments
(Optional)
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Specific Negotiated Commitments: Market Access
 Market Access (GATS Art. XVI/BTA Ch. III, Art. 6): do not maintain
the following 6 limitations, unless listed in the Schedule:
(1)number of service suppliers (e.g., monopoly basic telecom supplier)
(2)value of service transactions (e.g., foreign bank can accept deposits based
on value of paid in capital )
(3)number of service operations/total quantity of service output (e.g., total
quantity of architectural services may not exceed 350 blueprints per year)
(4)number of natural persons (e.g., foreign labor in legal sector may not
exceed 10%)
(5)type of legal entity (e.g., may only supply service through joint venture)
(6)foreign ownership (e.g., foreigners may own only 49% of local firm)
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Specific Negotiated Commitments:
National Treatment & Additional Commitments
 National Treatment (GATS Art. XVII/BTA Ch. III, Art. 7)
 General obligation: treat services and services suppliers of the
other country no less favorably than how you treat your own like
service and service providers
 Limitations: a country may derogate from this rule provided that it
lists this derogation in its Schedule (e.g., foreign banks must pay
US$10 million to establish a local subsidiary)
 Additional Commitments (GATS Art. XVIII/BTA Ch. III,
Art. 8):
 Permits negotiation of additional commitments beyond market
access and national treatment (e.g., Telecom Reference Paper
(GATS Schedules/BTA Annex F))
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Specific Negotiated Commitments
Banking Services Example from the BTA
 Sector: Vietnam undertook commitments on many banking services,
including acceptance of deposits, lending, financial leasing, money
transmission services, asset management, etc.
 Limitations: Vietnam undertook MA and NT limitations
 Mode 1 (cross border): unbound (i.e., no commitment)
 Mode 2 (consumption abroad): none (i.e., full commitment)
 Mode 3 (commercial presence): various MA and NT limitations
 limitations on legal entity (e.g., U.S. fin service providers may only operate as
bank branch, JV, or US fin leasing company)
 limitations on foreign equity (e.g., 100% U.S. owned subsidiaries permitted
after 9 years)
 limitations on service transactions (e.g., U.S. bank branch may accept dong
deposits according to a specific percentage of its paid-in capital)
 Mode 4 (natural persons): unbound (i.e., no commitment)
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Specific Negotiated MFN Exemptions**
 MFN is a core obligation.
 Agreements permit temporary MFN exemption (GATS
Art. II(2)/BTA Ch. III, Art. 2(2)): thus allowing a country
to discriminate among trading partners. But not automatic:
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Must be negotiated
Applies to specific sector
Temporary: 10 years
Example: US MFN Exemption (GATS and BTA)
**Applies only to sectors listed in a country’s negotiated list
of MFN exemptions.
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Special Rules for Special Services
(1) Annex on Financial Services (incorporated into BTA via Annex F)
 Allows parties to take “prudential measures” to protect investors,
depositors, policy holders and to ensure integrity of financial system
 Excludes from coverage certain services provided when a government
exercises its authority over the financial system (e.g., monetary policy,
exchange rate policy, social security)
(2) Annex on Telecommunications (incorporated into BTA via Annex F)
 Requires parties to ensure that service suppliers can access/use public
telecom networks/services on reasonable and non-discriminatory terms
and conditions
(3) Annex on Air Transport Services (not part of BTA)
 Excludes certain services from GATS coverage (e.g., traffic rights)
 Applies GATS to other services (aircraft repair and maintenance, selling
and marketing of air transport services, computer reservation services)
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III. OTHER ISSUES
Dispute Settlement, Regulation, WTO Accession,
WTO Services Negotiations
Dispute Settlement
 Little current WTO jurisprudence on GATS. But, pending cases will
interpret key provisions.
 Existing WTO Jurisprudence
 EC Bananas (US/others challenge EU’s banana import regime)
 Measure can raise both GATT and GATS issues
 MFN applies to de facto discrimination
 Entities supplying like services are like service suppliers
 Canada Autos (EU/Japan challenge Canada’s import duty exemption)
 Pending WTO Disputes
 Mexico Telecom (U.S. challenges aspects of Mexico’s telecom regime)
 Panel will interpret Reference Paper, Telecom Annex, Art. XVII
 US Gambling (Antigua challenges U.S. gambling laws)
 If proceeds, could examine Art. XIV public morals exception
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GATS and Regulation
 Misapprehension about the relationship between the
GATS/BTA and the ability of a country to regulate.
 Agreements do not prohibit legitimate regulation.
 GATS Preamble reaffirms this right: “Recognizing the right of
Members to regulate, and to introduce new regulations, on the
supply of services within their territories in order to meet national
policy objectives and ... the particular need of developing countries
to exercise this right.”
 Agreements set framework on how (not whether) regulator
can regulate (e.g., must not discriminate, must be
transparent, etc.).
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Moving Forward: Vietnam’s WTO Accession
 Services is a critical aspect of Vietnam’s accession.
 Accession will not happen until WTO Members are satisfied with
Vietnam’s services offer.
 BTA is the floor.
 Remember MFN!
 Beyond the BTA?
 WTO Members will likely seek enhanced commitments:
 Reduced phase in periods (e.g., banking)
 Reduced foreign investment limitations (e.g., telecom)
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Moving Forward: WTO Services Negotiations
 WTO Members are now engaged in a new round of services
negotiations.
 Purpose
 Further liberalize trade in services (i.e., expand current commitments)
 Address horizontal issues, including movement of natural persons
 Timetable
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January 2000: beginning of negotiations
November 2001: Doha
March 2003: offers due (so far, 26 Members have made offers)
July 2003: negotiations in Geneva
September 2003: Cancun Ministerial
January 2005: Target Completion Date
 Proposals: WTO Members are tabling proposals on the negotiations
(e.g., sector-by-sector, cross-sector, general)
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July 2003
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