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Types of Industry
1
Types of Industry
You can divide the jobs and industries into 4
groups –
 Primary
 Secondary
 Tertiary
 Quaternary.
2
Quaternary Industries

Quaternary Industries - process ideas

e.g. computer programmers, accountants and
university professors etc.
3
Primary Industry

Primary industries – extract raw materials

e.g. iron, lumber, gold and the like
4
Secondary Industry

Secondary industry – uses materials from
Primary Industry to create finished products

e.g. vehicles
5
Tertiary Industry


Tertiary industries - services that support
Primary and Secondary industries.
Tertiary and Quaternary industries employ
3X more than Primary and Secondary
combined.
6
Basic Industries


e.g. Miners receive their pay from sources
beyond the boundaries of their local
economy.
Their jobs are as the result of the
customers who indirectly buy items that are
produced from the metals/ores they extract.
7
Non-Basic Industry



Non-Basic - does not bring new money into
a local economy
$ is effectively recycled within a community
Basic Industries are crucial for growing and
economy.
8
Question
What Industry is important for the growth of
an economy.
a) Non-Basic
b) Basic
c) Primary
c) Secondary
9
Question
Tertiary and Quaternary Industries employ
___ times more people than do Primary
and Secondary Industries combined.
a) 2
b) 3
c) 4
d) 5
10
Question
What industry is first in line?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Quaternary
Tertiary
Secondary
Primary
11
Question
Which industry recycles monies already in
one’s local economy?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Tertiary
Non-basic
Basic
Primary
12
The World
Community
13
Why the Increase in International
Connections?



More people are traveling to more places
International trade grows a great amount
every year
Phoning and internet allow contact
throughout the “Global Village”
14
Grouping Countries

How do you group countries?



Similarities
Comparing economic and social development
Economic development is measured using
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita
15
Grouping Countries

Social development is measured by
comparing factors like:



How long people live
Health care they receive
Education levels reached
16
Three Levels of Development

Developed Countries


Countries that have highest social and
economic development
Some characteristics of Developed Countries
are having well developed:





Education
Health care
Banking
Transportation
Information technologies
17
Developed Countries


People living in this type
of country have the
highest standards of
living in the world
The poorest people in
these countries are well
to do in comparison to
average persons residing
in developing countries
18
19
Developed Countries
Contain 20% of the
World’s population
 Use most of the
World’s resources
 Produce most of the
World’s pollution

20
Developing Countries

Developing countries




Have lowest levels of economic/social growth
Are dominated by Primary industries and
Agriculture
Most citizens live their lives farming
Most of the population does not have money to
spend on telephones, banks, and schools
21
Developing Countries



Citizens earn very little money
Therefore they do not pay taxes
Since no taxes are paid, governments in
developing countries are unable to provide for:



Education
Health Care
Economic Development
22
Newly Industrializing Countries



Countries that are becoming developed
Undergoing enormous change
Change in lifestyles and economy are occurring
at a rapid speed
23
Limits of Grouping Countries this
way…

There are only 3 groups


Countries can be very different from each other
yet, still belong to the same group
Wealth and resources are not necessarily
distributed evenly or equitably
24
What determines the level of
development?

Life expectancy


Wealth


How long people live
GDP per capita is used to measure wealth
Population Growth

How fast the population is growing
25
What determines the level of
development?
 Education level
 Determines literacy level of country


Health care
 Having effective health care is vital for development
Food supply
 How much food each country supplies its people
26
QUESTION
What is meant by the term Global Village?
a) “It takes a village to grow a child.”
b) Cities are becoming more diverse and have residents
representing a wide variety of cultures.
c) An organization that obtains and sells goods from third
world countries in developed countries, to support
artisans from developing countries.
d) Communication by phone and internet resulting is
more closely connected communities.
27
QUESTION
Which country is known to have the highest
standard of living amongst its citizens?
a) Brazil
b) Norway
c) Italy
d) Spain
28
Question
Which of the following produces most of the
World’s pollution?
a) Industrializing countries
b) Developing countries
c) Developed countries
d) Third world countries
29
Question
How do we typically and frequently group countries?
a) By differences and social development
b) By differences and economic development
c) By similarities and social and ecological
development
d) By similarities and social and economic
development
30
Global Warming
Living in the Greenhouse
31
Global Warming
an increase of the earth's temperature by
a few degrees
32
What is happening?


Gases trap more heat in the atmosphere
than needed
Global temperatures are rising
33
The Green House Effect
34
Main Greenhouse Gases




Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Halocarbons
Water Vapour
35
Carbon Cycle
36
Carbon Cycle

More carbon is being released

More people




1.6 Billion 1888
6 Billion today
Lifestyle requires more fossil fuels, clearing more
forests
Carbon locked away beneath Earth’s surface
is now being added to atmosphere through
fossil fuels
37
Hoax Theory

The earth has gone through warming and
cooling periods


The Medieval Warming Period
Global Warming is nothing to worry about
38
39
Hoax Theory

During the Medieval warming period there
were NOT…



Cars
Factories
6 B people
40
How will this effect us?


Global temperatures are rising
Summer 2003 European Heat Wave


35 000 people died
Become more frequent
41
How will this effect us?

Imbalance of precipitation

Alberta and Saskatchewan would suffer from
this

Already driest area of Southern Canada
42
How will this effect us?

Increase of sea level by 1 m



Caused by melting glaciers and polar ice
80% of the Marshall Islands in the Pacific
would be flooded
Bangladesh would suffer devastating floods


Population of 120 million
4 times that of Canada
43
How will this effect us?

The amount of “weather refugees” is
increasing

There are now more of these refugees than
political/war refugees



25 million weather
23 million political/war
Canada would be under a lot of pressure to
accept these people
44
How will this effect us?


Wealthy countries must provide at least
$86 billion US to the world's poor by 2015
help them cope with




floods
droughts
disease
other negative effects from global warming
45
What can/should we do?

We MUST reduce the amount of emissions





Carpool
Walk
Bike
Plant a tree
Use energy efficient devices
46
What can/should we do?

Use alternate fuel sources




Electric
Wind
Solar
Geothermal
47
The Tindo
48
The Tindo

World’s first solar powered electric bus




Adelaide, Australia
Free admission
200 km range between charges
Charged with solar generated electricity
49
Groups
1.
In between


2.
3.
Do nothing until there is clear proof
Global warming is clear

4.
Willing to accept the problem
Not willing to take the steps to solve it
Take drastic action
Gradually switch to cleaner energy and
environmentally friendly lifestyles
50
Question
What percentage of the Marshall Islands
would be flooded if the sea level rose 1m?
A.
B.
C.
D.
.8%
24%
80%
95%
51
Question
Which of the following energy sources is the
most environmentally friendly?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Nuclear
Geothermal
Natural Gas
Coal
52
Question
Which of the following would be the most
environmentally friendly method of
transportation?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Carpool
Taxi (alone)
Bio-Diesel Vehicle
Air
53
Question
What is the “Greenhouse Effect?”
A.
B.
C.
D.
Carbon dioxide trapped deep beneath the earth’s
surface
The thinning of our atmosphere
Gases trap heat from the sun in our
atmosphere
Toxins from plastic factories damage our Ozone
Layer that prevents solar radiation from
escaping.
54
Water Resources
55
Types of Fresh Water
 There are four types of fresh water




Surface water
Sub-surface water
Desalination
Frozen water
56
Surface Water
 Surface water is water in lakes, rivers
or wetlands.
 It is naturally replenished by rainfall, and
lost to oceans and evaporation
 It is estimated that Canada has the
largest amount of fresh water in the
World
57
Sub-surface water
 This water is located in the pore
space of soil and rocks
 It shares many of the same
characteristics of surface water, the
main difference being its slow rate of
turnover
58
Desalination
 This is a process where saline water
is converted to fresh water
 This is a expensive resource
compared to others, and only
satisfies a very small percentage of
humans
59
Frozen water
 There have been a
few plans made to
turn ice burgs into a
water source
 But so far it has only
been used for
novelty reasons,
even though glacier
runoff is considered
to be fresh water
60
Uses of Water
 Canadians consume large quantities
of water users
 Many of our personal, social and
economic activities relate to water
61
Water Diversions
 When there are water
shortages - we often
divert water from one
drainage basin to
another
 Can only be done
over short distances
 Water is used to
produce hydroelectricity
62
Wetlands
 Wetlands are an
important source of
groundwater and
can act as storage
areas for flood
water
 However they are
starting to
disappear
 Over 70% of S.
Ontario’s wetlands
have dried up
63
Future Needs
 Today Canadians have plenty water,
but the demand is likely to grow as
our population increases and our
industries expand
64
What kind of water is found in
rivers, lakes and wetlands?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Fresh water
Saline water
Sub-surface water
Frozen water
65
Water Diversions ______
a) Are great for the eco-system
b) Provide animals with a place to live
c) Can be used to create hydro
electricity
d) b and c
66
What percentage of Southern
Ontario’s wetlands have dried up?
a)
b)
c)
d)
5%
30%
50%
70%
67
Why is the demand for fresh water
likely to grow in the future?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Because of higher population
It won’t
Because of growth in industry
a and c
68
Canada’s Foreign
Trade
69
Key Terms…





Imports
Exports
Trade surplus
Net imports
Net exports





Trade deficit
Tariff
Import substitution
Protectionism
Free trade
70
Exports vs. Imports

More exports than imports the difference
is called trade surplus

More imports than exports it’s called
trade deficit
71
Why Must Canada Export?
The three main reasons are:
1.To pay for things that we import
2.To keep our economy healthy
3.To lower prices of Canadian-made goods for Canadians
72
How do we benefit?

Canada benefits from exporting goods by
simply selling them to other countries.

For a country to make money from trading
they must export more goods than the
import.
73
You Should Know…


A tariff is a tax charged on products
coming into Canada to protect our
industries.
It is applied to enforce protectionism.
74
In Real Life
Tariff and Protectionism…
When you go to the States to shop, you will
undoubtedly spend some of your money
there.
If you spend over $200, you will have to pay
duty on your purchases at the border, and
that’s a ‘royal pain’ in the butt.
75
Freedom!

Free trade is pretty much the type of trade we
all think we want…




Trade with no strings attached
No hidden fees
No duty at the border
and of course no tariff barriers.
76
Another little tidbit…
Import substitution is the process of
replacing foreign goods with Canadian
goods to support Canadian business.
77
IMPORT SUBSTITUTION

WHEN YOU CHOOSE TO
USE A CANADIAN GROWN
OR MADE PRODUCT YOU
ARE SAVING CANADA
FROM IMPORTING THAT
PARTICULAR GOOD. THIS
IS CALLED IMPORT
SUBSTITUTION.
78
Canadian Import Substitution
Canadian cars are quite different from
European cars.
They are generally less fuel efficient and not
as economical.
79
However, people still feel compelled to
purchase Canadian built cars to
support our country’s vehicle
production and its workers.
80
Statistics…

Every 1 in 5 jobs in Canada is tied to exports

Canada’s largest trading partner is the Unites States
81
COMMODITY
IMPORTS
EXPORTS
NET
INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY
30,572
56,913
- 26,342
COMPUTERS, T.V. AND ELECTRONICS
33,499
17,004
16,495
MOTOR VEHICLE PARTS
24,651
16,981
7,670
PRECISION INSTRUMENTS, CLOCKS, AND
MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
11,449
4,329
7,120
TEXTILES, CLOTHING AND FOOTWEAR
13,171
6,067
7,104
SPORTS, GAMES, AND REC. EQUIPMENT
3,797
1,438
2,359
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
4,401
2,066
2,335
BOOKS, MAGAZINES AND OTHER PRINT
3,405
2,062
1,343
SUGAR, COFFEE, TEA, CHOCOLATE, SPICES AND
NUTS
1,536
909
627
82
NAFTA
A movement that started in 1988 to have free trade
in North America.
North American Free Trade Agreement
83
GATT
An agreement including major trade countries
that encourages Trade world wide.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
84
Which of the following is an example
of trade deficit?
a)
Canada gives USA 50 cows and does not receive any.
b)
China and Canada exchange 1,000 lbs of grain and rice.
c)
Canada gives 6,000 meters of material away and
receives 5,000 meters of material from another country
d)
Canada gives Russia 1,000 cars and receives 2,000
cars from Germany.
85
a)
Import
Substitution
is when…
b)
c)
d)
Goods are imported and resold within another country
When you purchase goods
produced in your own
country.
Goods that are traded from
one country to another.
You are building a project
and you use a different
material than suggested.
86
87
Key Terms
 Ecological
Footprint [ E.F.]
 Carrying
Capacity
 Sustainability
 Productive
Land
 Degraded Land
 Energy land
88
What is an ecological footprint?

An ecological footprint
is the amount of space
that is required to
support an individual’s
activities.
89
What is an ecological footprint?

An ecological footprint
is a measurement of
the demands that we
place on our
environment
90
The Breakdown
EF is made of 5 different layers.
• Biodiversity - variety of people in
an ecosystem.
• Built Land - land that has been
built upon.
• Energy Land - energy used in a
specific area.
• Bio-productive Sea - ocean waste.
• Bio-productive Land - land waste.
91
Facts

The average global footprint is 21 global
hectares per person.

Unfortunately, the sustainable footprint is only
approximately 15 hectares per capita.

Global Ecological Footprint Calculator
92
Reducing our Ecological Footprint




Carpool
Bike
Walk, etc.
Use energy saving
lightbulbs, appliances,
solar energy, etc.
93
Productive Land
Activities
Energy Degraded Crop Pasture Forested Total
Land
Land
Land Land
Land
Land
Housing
0.41
0.08
0.40
Construction 0.06
0.35
Operation
0.35
0.05
Food
0.33
0.62
0.33
0.02
0.89
1.30
94
Activities
Energy Degraded Crop Pastur Forested
Land
Land
Land e Land Land
Transportation 0.79
People
(private)
0.60
People
(public)
0.07
Goods
0.12
0.10
Total
Land
0.89
95
Consumer
Goods
0.52
Packaging
0.10
Clothing
0.11
0.01
0.06
0.13
0.17
0.89
0.04
0.02
0.13
Furniture and 0.06
Appliances
0.03
Books and
Magazines
0.06
0.10
Tobacco and
Alcohol
0.06
Personal
Care
0.03
Recreation
Equipment
0.10
0.04
96
Services
0.29
Government
and Military
0.06
Education
0.08
Health Care
0.08
Tourism
0.01
0.01
0.30
Entertainment 0.01
Other
0.05
Total
2.34
0.20
0.68
0.46
0.59
4.27
97
QUESTION
What is the average environmental
footprint per person?
a] 12 hectares
b] 15hectares
c] 18 hectares
d] 21 hectares
98
QUESTION
Ecological footprints measure…
a] the average annual amount of Carbon
Dioxide that we emit into the atmosphere.
b] the amount of greenhouse gases in the air
c] the demand that we place on the
environment
d] your Ecological shoe size
99
100
Key Terms
 Ecological
 Carrying
Footprint [ E.F.]
 Productive Land
 Degraded Land
 Energy Land
Capacity
 Fair Earthshare
 Sustainability
 Overshoot
101
What is an ecological footprint?
An ecological
footprint is the
amount of space
that is required to
support a person’s
activities.
102
What is an ecological footprint?
The ecological
footprint measures
the demand that we
place on our
environment
103
The Breakdown
•
•
•
•
•
•
The ecological footprint is made
up of 5 different layers.
Biodiversity - the variety of people
within a given ecosystem.
Built land - areas of land that have
been built on
Energy land - energy used up in a
specific area
Bio-productive Sea - wastes in
oceans
Bio-productive Land - amount of
wastes on land
104
Facts



The global average footprint is 21 global
hectares per person.
The sustainable footprint is approx. 15 global
hectares per capita.
Global Ecological Footprint Calculator
105
Reducing our Ecological Footprint


Carpooling, biking,
walking, etc. [exercise
to save the
environment]
Use energy saving
bulbs, appliances,
solar energy, etc.
106
Productive Land
Activities
Energy Degraded Crop
Land
Land
Land
Housing 0.41
Pasture
Land
0.08
Forested
Land
Total
Land
0.40
0.89
•Construction
0.06
0.35
•Operation
0.35
0.05
Food
0.33
0.62 0.33
0.02
1.30
107
Activities
Energy Degraded
Land
Land
Transp- 0.79 0.10
ortation
•People
Crop
Land
Pasture
Land
Forested Total
Land
Land
0.89
0.60
(private)
•People
0.07
(public)
•Goods
0.12
108
Consumer 0.52 0.01
Goods
0.06 0.13
0.17
•Packaging
0.10
•Clothing
0.11
•Furniture
and
Appliances
0.06
0.03
•Books
and
Magazines
0.06
0.10
•Tobacco
and
0.06
Care
0.03
0.89
0.04
0.02
0.13
0.04
Alcohol
•Personal
•Recreation
0.10
Equipment
109
Services
0.29 0.01
Government
and military
0.06
Education
0.08
Health Care
0.08
Tourism
0.01
Entertainment
0.01
Other
0.05
Total
2.34 0.20
0.30
0.68
0.46
0.59
4.27
110
QUESTION
What is the average global footprint per
person?
a]15 global hectares
b]12 global hectares
c]18 global hectares
d]21 global hectares
111
QUESTION
The Ecological Footprint measures…
a] the circumference around MOTHER
EARTH
b] the amount of greenhouse gases in the air
c] the demand that we place on the
environment
d] your shoe size
112
113
114
What is the Global Village?
115
Ways to group countries…
116
Three Levels of Development
117
Three Levels of Development
118
Three Levels of Development
119
Limitations of Grouping Countries
“Progress” & “Development”
3 Groups
120
How many different levels of
country are there?
A)3
B)4
C)5
121
Most of the new development
in the developed countries is
focused on:
A)Manufacturing
B)Agriculture
C)Farming
122
Types of Industry
123
National Wealth & Branches of
Industry

Wealth is generated from a combination of
rich natural resources and labour of
people.

There are 4 categories of Industry:
Primary
 Secondary
 Tertiary
 Quaternary

124
Primary Industries
 Extraction of raw materials
 This area of the economy makes a huge
contribution to Canada’s wealth.
 These Industries are tied directly to
natural resources, and are usually
located close by.
125
Secondary Industries



Secondary Industries are involved in the
processing of primary industry products
into finished goods.
This may involve more than one step.
The largest sector of secondary industry is
manufacturing, which is responsible for
making all the goods consumers need.
126
Tertiary Industry
• Provide services
• Without this sector, industry could not function
• This area employs most of the Canadians in
industry
• These are called service industries, which is
where most of you work, if you work at all.
127
Basic & Non-Basic Industry
 Basic jobs come from basic industries,
and are paid indirectly by the consumer,
like a logger in Thompson.
 Non-Basic jobs are jobs that are paid
directly by the consumer, and they are
not needed to fully support the local
economy, like a chef.
128
Question
Wealth is generated by:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Labour
Shrewd business practices
Taxes
Mechanical labour
129
Which area of industry provides the most
revenue for Canada?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Primary Industry
Secondary Industry
Tertiary Industry
Quaternary Industry
130
A secondary industry does what?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Provides jobs
Processes products
Helps the economy
All of the above
131
Which industry provides the greatest
number of jobs?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Manufacturing
Tertiary Industry
Mining
a&c
132
Canada’s Foreign
Trade
133
Why Do We Trade?
 Countries depend on
other countries for
trading
134
Terms
 Exporting more than
importing = trade
surplus
 Importing more than
exporting = trade
deficit
135
Who Do We Trade With?
136
The United States
 America is our best
friend whether we
like it or not
 By far most of our
importing and
exporting is done
with the US
137
NAFTA
The North American Free
Trade Agreement
(NAFTA) means North
American countries can
trade with each other
without duty
138
The Softwood Lumber Dispute
 Long ongoing
problem
139
What is the Softwood Lumber
Dispute?
 Provincial government subsidizes
 America charges a high tariff
 Canada doesn’t get business from
America
140
What is happening now?
 US lifted the tax in
2006
 Canada is still limited
in their sales
141
Our Imports
 A lot of our imports are from tropical and
3rd world countries
142
143
Our Exports
144
 20% of jobs in
Canada are linked to
exports
145
Should We Reduce Our
Imports
 Is it good we get our
products for cheap in
other countries?
146
What percent of Canadian
Jobs are linked to Exports
a. 30%
b. 20%
c. 50%
d. 15%
147
When a country imports more
than it exports it is called a
a. Trade surplus
b. Import country
c. Trade deficit
d. All of the above
148
Our closest trading partner is
a. US
b. China
c. UK
d. Japan
149
What does NAFTA stand for
a. North American Foundation To Achieve
b. North American Free Trial Alternative
c. North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement
d. North American Free Trade Agreement
150
Water Resources
151
Water for Life
 Humans
need water more that any other
physical thing.
 On
average, people need about 2.5L per
day to stay healthy.
 This
is driven by the fact that over 2/3 of
our bodies are composed of water.
152
Drinking Water



¾ of the earth’s surface is covered in
water.
Of that, only 0.6% can be consumed.
Most of this drinkable water is found in
Lakes, Rivers, and Aquifers.
153
Pollution
• Physical – Able to see, human presence
• Chemical – Colourless & usually odourless
pesticides/herbicides
• Biological – Substances that harm the
living organisms in the area
154
Biological Magnification
• BM is where an organism on the bottom of
the food chain, like a plant that ingests
chemicals or toxins, and when an animal
eats 5 plants, it gets not only 1x the
amount of chemical, but 5x, and so on up
the food chain to us.
155
Drainage Basins
 The
Pacific
 The Atlantic
 The Arctic
 Hudson Bay
 Gulf of Mexico
156
Water Uses
Power (Hydroelectricity)
 Consumption
 Industry
 Irrigation
(Classified as either instream or withdrawal use.)


Canada overall uses about 130 billion L/day,
whereas it’s expected that by 2011, water use
could jump to 180 billion L per day.
157
Sustainable Development
“Our economic and environmental health
today and in the future will depend in part
on how we manage our water resources.
We need to evaluate our behavior and
lifestyles in order to sustain our high
quality freshwater resources for future
generations. If we do not take measures
to protect our environment, the words
from the poem The Ancient Mariner may
predict our future: ‘Water, water everywhere,
158
Questions
What percentage of earth’s surface water is
actually drinkable?
a.
b.
c.
d.
0.3%
0.5%
0.6%
0.65%
159
Which is not a drainage basin of Canada?
a.
b.
c.
d.
The Pacific
The St. Lawrence
The Gulf of Mexico
The Arctic
160
On average, how many liters of water do
Canadians use every day?
a.
b.
c.
d.
240 L
270 L
300 L
330 L
161
Which is not a type of water use?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Biological
Instream
Withdrawal
Hydroelectric
162
163
Global
Warming is
the idea that
world
temperatures
are
increasing.
164
165
166
Carbon dioxide is
the most important
greenhouse gas.
It is made by animals
breathing you are
producing it right now
as you breathe! It is
made from the
burning of any
organic material like
wood and grass.
167
168
THE IMPACT OF
GLOBAL
WARMING
Scientists predict
that average
temperature in the
next 100 years will
increase by 1 to
3.5C.
169
More on the impact
on Global Warming....
The biggest
increase will
occur in polar
areas,
especially in
the winter
months.
This warming
would have a
number of
effects on the
world and on
Canada.
170
One of the impacts of global
warming is an increase in sea
level of one meter, caused by
melting glaciers and polar ice
sheets.
171
Glacier in the Peruvian Andes in 1980 and from the same
position in 2002. Cordillera Blanca, Peru.
172
173
What animal was
threatened under the
U.S. endangered
species act was
announced, on May 14,
2008??!!??
a.Black Bear
b.Whale
c.Dolphin
d.Polar Bear
e.Hummingbird
174
What is the most
important
Greenhouse
Gas?!?
a. Methane
b. Carbon Dioxide
c. Oxygen
d. Nitrous Oxide
e. Water Vapor
175
How much snow
has the planet
lost since the
1960’s?
a. 12%
b. 10%
c. 11%
d. 5%
176