Lysbilde 1

download report

Transcript Lysbilde 1

Sustainability Indicators – The
Norwegian example
by
Torstein Bye
Director, Economics, Energy and Environmental Department
Statistics Norway
Policy and the capital approach
National Economic wealth
The Norwegian indicator commission
The Norwegian indicator set
The capital approach
Heterogeneity
Summary
Policy and the capital approach
Agenda 21
• Six policy areas – matching the capital approach ?
– International cooperation for sustainable development and
combating poverty
• Prerequisite for sustainability?
– Climate, ozone and long range air pollution
• Flows
• (additional indicators to capture stock – global warming?)
– Biodiversity and cultural heritage
• Mix of stocks and flows
– Natural resources
• stocks
– Hazardous chemicals
• Critical values
– Sustainable economic and social development ?
• Flows (supplementary wealth)
National Economic wealth since 1993
– 70 % increase
Natural resource capital
National economic wealth by source. 1986-2008. 1986-2008.
1000 NOK/capita. Fixed 2008-prices
**Net present value
**Oil and gas
12000
**Hydro power
10000
**Fisheries
8000
**Agriculture
6000
**Forestry
4000
Produced capital –
**national accounts
2000
0
-2000
1986-1990
1991-1995
1996-2000
Natural resources capital
Produced capital
Financial assets
Total capital
2001-2005
2006-2008
Human capital
Financial assets
**Net foreign assets
Human capital
**Residual –npv - infinity
The Norwegian indicator commission -16 indicators
policy oriented capital approach
Table 1. Proposal for indicator set and relations to issues and components of the national wealth
Indicator
Greenhouse
gases
Critical land
areas
Issues
Climate
change
Acidification
Terrestrial
Nesting birds Ecosystem
Ecological
Freshwater
lakes
ecosystem
Ecological
coastal
Coastal
waters
ecosystem
Efficiency of
Energy/GDP resources
Renewable
Arctic cod
resources
Hazardous
substances Critical
Net national
income
Income
Petroleum
Sustainable
adj. saving
Consumption
Education
Generational
accounts
Life
expectancy
Unemployd/di
sability
Trade with
LDC
Education
ODA/GDP
Global poverty
Public finance
Health
Exclusion
Global poverty
Political issues
Climate etc Biodiversity Nat.Resource Hazardous Economic dev
٧
٧
Social
Financial
Components of wealth - capital
Produced C
Human
Nat.resources Environment
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
٧
The Norwegian sustainable indicators -18 indicators
Components of national wealth
Financial Produced
assets
capital
Human
capital
Natural
resources
capital
EnvironSocial
mental
capital
capital
Policy areas
The Norwegian Indicator set
Size of spawning stock of North-Atlantic
cod and Norwegian spring-spawning
herring
Irreversible losses of biologically
productive areas
Energy use per unit GDP
Norwegian emissions of greenhouse
gases compared to Kyoto target
Emissions of NOx, NH3, SO2 and
NMVOCs
Priority areas
Natural Resources
Climate, ozone,
and lon-range air
pollution
Bird population index - population
trends for breeding bird species in
terrestrial ecosystems
Proportion of inland water bodies
classified as clearly not at risk
Proportion of coastal waters classifies
as clearly not at risk
Trend in standards of maintenance of
protected buildings
Potential exposure to hazardous
substances
Net national income per capita by
sources of income
Trends in income distribution
Generational accounts
Population by highest level of
educational development
Disability pensioners and long-term
unemployed persons in percentage of
the population
Life expectancy at birth
Norwegian official development
assistance, in NOK and in percentage
of gross national income
Imports from least developed countries
and from all developing countris
Biodiversity and
cultural heritage
Hazardous
chemicals
Sustainable
economic and
social development
International
cooperation for
sustainable
development and
combating poverty
Natural
Resources
Climate,
ozone, and
lon-range air
pollution
Biodiversity
and cultural
heritage
International
Sustainable cooperation for
Hazardous economic and
sust.
chemicals
social
development
development and combating
poverty
Social
areas
The Norwegian sustainable indicators -18
Total national wealth
Financial Produced
capital
capital
National
Economic
wealth
322´ /cap
1247´/cap
Natural Resources
capital
Human
Natural
Environcapital
Resource mental
capital*
capital
8115´/cap
Social
capital
1412´/cap
Population
highest level Bird population
of education index
Blue-positive
Red-negative
Disability and
long term
unemployd
Life
expectancy at
birth
Development
assistance
Emission of
greenhouse
gases
Emissions of
Coastal areas at NOx, SO2 and
risk
NMVOC
Maintenance of
buildings
Imports from
LDC
Inland water at
risk
Generation
accountstighten
publ.budget
Energy use per
capita
Size of
spawning stock
of cod/herring
Irreversible loss
of biologically
areas
Exposure to
hazardous
substances
Int. coop.
for
sust/pove
rty
combat.
Trends in
income
distribution
Heterogeneity - 64 – indicators and statistics
•
2. International cooperation for sustainable development and combating poverty
•
•
2.1. Norwegian official development assistance, in NOK and as percentage of gross national income. 1991-2009
2.2. Imports from least developed countries (LDCs) and from other developing countries. 1992-2008. NOK billion
•
3. Climate, ozone and long-range air pollution
•
•
•
•
•
3.1. Norwegian emissions of greenhouse gases compared with the Kyoto Protocol target. 1987-2008. Million tonnes
CO2 equivalents
3.2. Atmospheric CO2 concentration at Mauna Loa observatory, Hawaii. March 1958-February 2009. ppm
3.3. Global mean temperature. 1850-2008
3.4. Emission of greenhouse gases in Norway, by source. 1990-2008. Million tonnes CO2-equivalents
3.5. Global CO2 emissions. 1751-2006. Million tonnes carbon
3.6. Emissions of CO2 from combustion of fossil fuels. Selected countries and regions. 2006. Tonnes per capita
3.7. Norwegian emissions of NOx, NH3, SO2 and NMVOCs compared with the Gothenburg Protocol commitment. 1
000 tonnes
3.8. Emissions of acidifying substances in Norway. 1 000 tonnes acid equivalents. 1980-2008
3.9. Emissions of SOx. EMEP region. 1980-2006 and projections to 2010 and 2020. 1 000 tonnes
3.10. Percentage of Norway’s land area where critical loads for acidification are exceeded.
3.11. TOFP-values 1990-2008. Index, 1990=1
•
4. Biodiversity and cultural heritage
•
4.1. Bird population index – population trends for breeding bird species in terrestrial ecosystems (forest, mountain,
farmland)
4.2. Important impact factors for Norwegian Red List species.
4.3. Wilderness-like areas in Norway. 1900, 1940 and 2003
4.4. Principle drawing for calculation of the Nature Index
4.5. Nature Index for middle parts of Norway.
4.6. Proportion of the area of inland and coastal water bodies and proportion of river length classified as “not at risk”.
Per cent
4.7. Water regions in Norway
4.7. Percentage of Norwegian water bodies classified as “not at risk” of failing to meet the objectives of the Water
Framework Directive in 2015. Inland water bodies and coastal waters, by river basin district.
4.9. Standards of maintenance of protected buildings as per May 2009. Number of buildings
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Heterogeneity - 64 – indicators and statistics
•
5. Natural resources
•
•
•
•
•
•
5.1. Energy use per unit GDP and total energy use (PJ) for renewable and non-renewable energy sources. 1976-2007
5.2. Energy use in selected countries and regions. 2006. Kg oil equivalents (kgoe) per capita
5.3. Production of oil and gas, energy use in production and energy use per unit produced on the Norwegian continental shelf. 1990-2008. Index,
1990=1
5.4. Use of energy per unit value added in industry and commerce outside oil and gas production, and household energy use per capita. Indices,
1990=1
5.5. World energy use 1965-2007. Million tonnes oil equivalents
5.6. Extraction and use of energy goods in Norway. 1970-2008. PJ
5.7. Size of spawning stock of Northeast Arctic cod and Norwegian spring-spawning herring, compared with the precautionary reference points (Bpa).
Million tonnes
5.8. Quotas and landings. Northeast Arctic cod. 1978-2009. 1 000 tonnes
5.9. Quotas and landings. Norwegian spring-spawning herring. 1978-2009. 1 000 tonnes
5.10. Size of spawning stock of North Sea herring (autumn spawners) and North Sea cod compared with the precautionary reference points (Bpa).
1963-2008
5.11. Size of spawning stock of Barents Sea capelin compared with the critical reference point. 1973-2008. 1 000 tonnes
5.12. Loss of cultivated and cultivable land in accordance with the Planning and Building
Act and the Land Act. 1976-2008. Decares
•
6. Hazardous chemicals
•
6.1. Releases of hazardous substances 2002-2007 relative to the 2002 level, split by hazard categories (index 2002=1), and releases by hazard
categories in 2002 and 2007. Tonnes
6.2. Releases from dominant product categories, by hazard categories, 2007. Percentages
6.3. Releases from manufacturing industry and other industries, by hazard categories, 2007. Percentages
6.4. Concentration of short and medium chained polychlorinated paraffins in cod liver from five localities along the Norwegian coast. Ng
(nanogrammes)/g lipid
7. Sustainable economic and social development
7.1. Net national income in NOK per capita, by sources of income. 1986-2008. Constant 2008 prices
7.2. National wealth, by type of capital. 1986-2008. NOK 1 000 per capita. Fixed 2008- prices
7.3 Trends in income distribution. 1986-2007
7.4. Real income after taxes per for persons in different categories of the income distribution. Per cent
7.5. Generational accounts: Need to tighten public sector finances as a share of GDP
7.6. Growth in employment in public services. 2007-2060. Index, 2007=1
7.7. Population (aged 16 years and over) by highest level of educational attainment
7.8. Persons in the age group 25-64 years with tertiary education. OECD countries. 2006. Per cent
7.9. Disability pensioners and long-term unemployed persons as a percentage of the population
7.10. Seasonally adjusted unemployment in selected countries. 2004-2009. Per cent of the work force
7.11. Life expectancy at birth. 1825-2008
7.12. Percentage of population with health problems that influence every day life to a great degree, by age groups and sex.
7.13. Percentage of population with different diseases, by age groups. 2008
7.14. Percentage of Norwegian population with overweight (BMI<=27). Men and women.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Summary
•
•
•
•
•
•
The capital approach “is the basis” ?
More flow indicators than stock indicators
Work in progress
Heterogeneity and aggregation – valuation
Human capital
Nothing on social capital so far