apes ch1 - La Habra High School

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Transcript apes ch1 - La Habra High School

IQ #1
1. How much are Hall Passes worth?
2. What do I do if I am tardy?
3. Where do I go if I want to take a
sample test?
4. What do I need to do to get full
participation points?
5. How many days do I have to turn in
late work?
• Al Gore EcoSpot TV commercial contest
• http://www.current.tv/ecospotcontest
• Deadline Sept. 12th
Environmental Issues, Their Causes,
and Sustainability
G. Tyler Miller’s
Living in the Environment
13th Edition
Chapter 1
Dr. Richard Clements
Chattanooga State Technical Community College
Modified by Charlotte Kirkpatrick 2005
Key Concepts
Growth and Sustainability
Resources and Resource Use
Causes of Environmental Problems
Living More Sustainably
Ecology: Studies relationships
between living organisms and their
Environmental Science: interdisciplinary
science that helps us to understand how the earth
works, how we affect the earth, and how to deal with
environmental problems.
Refer to Spotlight on p. 3
Sustainable Society: satisfies the basic
needs of its people for food, clean water,
clean air, and shelter into the indefinite
future without depleting natural
Living sustainably: Living off the
earth’s natural income and not depleting
the earth’s natural capital.
Solar and Earth Capital
Know this
diagram you
will reference it
several times
this year (p. 92)
Warm Up #2
1. What does it mean to live sustainably?
2. Are we living off of earth capital or
3. Is the human population still growing
4. With a growth rate of 2.5% what is the
doubling time?
Population Growth
Linear Growth
Doubling Time/
Rule of 70
Doubling time (years) =
70/% growth rate
Ex. 70/1.28=54.7 years
See spotlight p. 5
Fig. 1-2 p. 4
World Population
Fig. 1-1 p. 2
Economic Growth Indicators
Gross National Product (GNP)
[also referred to as Gross National Income (GNI)]
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
Gross World Product (GWP)
Per Capita GNP
(also referred as per capita GNI)
GNP(GNI): Market value in current $ of all
goods and services produced by an economy,
inside and outside that country, for final use
during a year.
GDP: Same as GNP except it only includes
goods and services produced within a country
Purchasing Power Parity
PPP: Purchasing Power Parity is another
economic measure that more accurately
compares standards among countries.
GNI PPP: The market value of a countries GNI
in terms of what it would buy in the U.S.
Per Capita GNI (GNP)
• Per capita GNI: total GNI divided by the
total population at midyear.
• Provides the average slice of the economic
pie per person.
• Per capita GNI PPP: the GNI PPP divided
by the total population midyear. Again a
better way to compare people’s econmic
welfare among countries.
Wealth Gap
Economic Development
Economic Development: Improvement of
living standards by economic growth
Developed Countries: Highly
industrialized with a high GNI PPP (over
$10,750 per year in most cases)
Developing Countries: some middle
income, moderately developed countries with
GNI PPP of $2701- $10750. Others are low
income with GNI PPP of <$2701/year
[ See fig. 1-3 p. 5]
Developed vs. Developing
• Developed Countries :
total population of 1.2 billion people
have 85% of world’s wealth and income
use 88% of worlds resources and
generate 75% of its pollution and waste
• Developing Countries:
total population of 5 billion people
have 15% world’s wealth and income
use 12% of its resources
generate 25% of its pollution and waste
Warm Up #3
• What is the difference between GNP and
• Why is per capita GNP a better economic
measure than GNP alone?
• What is the impact seen on the world by
Developed Countries vs. Developing
• In your opinion, is globalization a good
MDC’s(developed) vs. LDC’s(developing)
• Globalization: global social,
economic, and environmental
change leading to increasingly
integrated world.
Indicators of Globalization
Increase in global economy
Increase in international trade of goods and services
Increase in the number of transnational corporations
operating in 3 or more countries
Information and Communication
Increase in number of people with internet access
(1 in 11 world wide as of 2002)
Indicators of Globalization (cont.)
Environmental Effects
increase in the number of infectious organisms
transported across international borders
increase in pollutants transferred around the
globe leading to widespread ocean pollution,
ozone depletion, and climate change
On a human timescale
is continuously renewed
(potentially renewable)
Replenished on a human
time scale if not used up
faster than replaced
On a human timescale
they are not renewable,
fixed amounts
Fig. 1-6 p. 9
Renewable Resources
Sustainable Yield: the highest rate at
Which a renewable resource can be used indefinitely
Without reducing its available supply
Environmental Degradation: When we
exceed a resource’s natural replacement rate, the
available supply begins to shrink
Tragedy of the Commons: overuse of
common property or free-access resources
Refer to Connections, p. 11
Non-Renewable Resources
Energy Resources
Metallic Resources
Economic Depletion
Fig. 1-7 p. 10
Extending nonrenewable
Reuse:Using a product in the
same form over and over again
Recycle: collecting and reprocessing a
Ecological Footprint: amount of land
needed to produce the resources needed by an
average person in a country
Fig. 1-8 p. 10
What is pollution?
Any addition to air, water, soil, or food that threatens
the health, survival, or activities of humans or other living
Effects of Pollution
Disruption of life-support systems for humans and
other species.
Damage to wildlife, human health and property.
Nuisances such as noise and unpleasant smells,
tastes, and sights.
Sources of Pollution
Point: Where pollutants come from single,
identifiable sources
Nonpoint: Where pollutants come from
dispersed and difficult to identify sources
Which would be easier to control and clean
up after?
Dealing With Pollution
Prevention (Input Control)
Reduces or eliminates the production of the pollutants
Cleanup (Output Control)
Cleaning up of pollutants after they have been produced
3 problems with cleanup:
1. It is only a bandage
2. Often removes pollutant from one part of the
environment and cause pollution in another.
3. Too costly
Environmental and Resource
Major Problems
(See Fig. 1-9 p. 12)
Five Root Causes
Fig. 1-10 p. 12
Environmental Impact
Fig. 1-11 p. 13
Environmental Interactions
Fig. 1-12 p. 14
Environmental Worldviews
Planetary Management:
Humans manage the earth mostly for their needs
We are in charge of nature
There is always more
All economic growth is good
Success is determined on how well we understand,
manage and control the earth’slife support systems for
our benefit
Environmental Wisdom:
Complete opposition of planetary management
Economic Development
Fig. 1-13 p. 17
decision making
Decision making in a
sustainable society