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IT in Developing Nations –
A Look at Sub-Saharan Africa
Samantha Cagle
Mark Reinsch
Xilu Zhang
1
Table of Contents





Objectives
Overview of IT in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)
The “Leapfrog” Effect
SSA Country Study – Rwanda: Hope for the Continent?
• Introduction
• Rwanda’s ICT plan
• Why Rwanda’s Different
• Challenges
Conclusion
2
Why Should I Care??
1.
It’s on the final exam !
2.
Globalization trends
3.
True and inspirational story
3
What We Want to Know
Can investments in IT
“save” a developing
country by bringing
economic prosperity?
4
Findings
IT does not guarantee
economic prosperity. It must
be partnered with open
markets, education, human
rights, freedom of speech
and clean government.
Mougayar, William. “Power of Information Technology Awaits Unleashing.”
http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/display.article?id=4168. Viewed October 27, 2006.
5
Learn by example: A glance at India
“The initial growth of the software service industry
in India was facilitated by the enlightened “hands
off” policies of the government of India.”
-Ashish Arora of Carnegie Mellon University & Suma Athreye of
the Indian Institute of Technology
It is a “non-linear tool available to humanity which
can bring fundamental changes in the ground rules
of economic competitiveness.
- Indian president A P J Abdul Kalam
6
http://www.indiadaily.com/breaking_news/81179.asp, viewed November 8, 2006.
Can IT help the “Lost Continent”
find its way?
7
Africa
trivia!!
8
Map of Sub-Saharan Africa
9
General IT Factors Affecting SSA
10
What is it?
“The number of landline telephones in use for every
100 individuals living within an area. A teledensity greater
than 100 means there are more telephones than people.
LDCs may have a teledensity of less than 10.”
http://www.techweb.com/encyclopedia/defineterm.jhtml?term=teledensity, viewed November 8,
2006.
“In the 1990s, the definition of the teledensity indicator
was broadened to include mobile (wireless) subscribers
to the PSTN to reflect the introduction and importance
of wireless access.”
International Telecommunication Union (ITU), World Telecommunications Development Report,
1998, and Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD),
Communications Outlook.
http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/epic/internet/insmt-gst.nsf/en/sf06019e.html#N_7_, November 8, 2006
11
∙ “core backbone” that encourages
implementation of technological services
∙ “Adequate communication infrastructure
enables citizens to access…pools of knowledge,
information, finances and markets that empower
them to effectively engage in capacity building,
income generation and skills-acquisition activities
beneficial to the local communities to which they
belong.”
Mbarika, V., Meso, P., and Musa, P., “A Disconnect in Stakeholders’ Perceptions from
Emerging Realities of Teledensity Growth in Africa’s Least Developed Countries"
Journal of Global Information Management, Vol. 12, 3, 2004, pp. 2
12
Phone lines per 100 people
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
U.S.
Sweden
Europe
World
Africa
Mbarika, V., Meso, P., and Musa, P., “A Disconnect in Stakeholders’ Perceptions from
Emerging Realities of Teledensity Growth in Africa’s Least Developed Countries"
Journal of Global Information Management, Vol. 12, 3, 2004, pp. 4.
13
Usage % vs. Population %
World Usage %
World Population %
60.00%
50.00%
40.00%
30.00%
20.00%
10.00%
0.00%
Africa
Europe
S.
America
Internet usage information comes from data published by Nielsen//NetRatings, by the
International Telecommunications Union, by local NICs, and other reliable sources
14
http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm, viewed November 9, 2006
What’s the hold-up?
Four Major Obstacles
1. Organizational: African LDC governments
monopolize telecommunications; little incentive for
performance
2. Financial: Very poor economic structure and
“insufficient financial autonomy” (currency
exchange, banking systems)
Mbarika, V., Meso, P., and Musa, P., “A Disconnect in Stakeholders’ Perceptions from
Emerging Realities of Teledensity Growth in Africa’s Least Developed Countries" Journal
of Global Information Management, Vol. 12, 3, 2004, pp. 5-6.
15
3. Technological: The few systems in place are in
major cities to serve government needs, leaving
rural areas with little or no phone systems. The little
equipment in rural areas is outdated, making
maintenance very difficult.
4. Geographical: According to International
Telecommunication Union, “government monopolies of
LDCs lack a universal access policy,” leaving difficult to
reach areas without services, as there is little incentive to
expansion.
Mbarika, V., Meso, P., and Musa, P., “A Disconnect in Stakeholders’ Perceptions from
Emerging Realities of Teledensity Growth in Africa’s Least Developed Countries"
Journal of Global Information Management, Vol. 12, 3, 2004, pp. 5-6.
16
There is hope…
Growth rate of mobile telephone use in Africa
accelerating; highest of all continents since 2000.
By the end of 2001, 28 of Africa’s 49 LDCs had more
mobile users than fixed-line users.
Use of cellular phones has grown at more than 82%
per year since 2001. U.S. growth was 33%.
Private sector: Sun Microsystems, AOL Time-Warner, HP
together “have pledged $10 million toward studies on
how to use IT to better the quality of life in SSA.”
Mbarika, V., Meso, P., and Musa, P., “A Disconnect in Stakeholders’ Perceptions
from Emerging Realities of Teledensity Growth in Africa’s Least Developed
Countries" Journal of Global Information Management, Vol. 12, 3, 2004, pp. 2
17
INTERNET USAGE GROWTH
2000-2006
700.00%
600.00%
500.00%
400.00%
300.00%
200.00%
100.00%
0.00%
Africa
Asia
Europe
N. America S. America Australia
Internet usage information comes from data published by Nielsen//NetRatings, by the
International Telecommunications Union, by local NICs, and other reliable sources
18
http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm, viewed November 9, 2006
The Crippling of a Continent
19
∙ “Software piracy remains one of the major hurdles
to realizing the potential of the information economy
in South Africa, on the continent…”
– Chairman of the Business Software Alliance in South Africa
http://www.bsa.org/southafrica/press/newsreleases/2006-Global-Piracy-Study.cfm,
viewed October 16, 2006
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∙ In some LDC countries, as much as 90% of
software is pirated.
∙ Average piracy rate for the continent is 70%. South
Africa was the lowest on the continent at 36%.
∙ Efforts to fight piracy resulted in only a one percent
decrease in South Africa, resulting in $1.2 billion in
economic
losses (eliminates legitimate competition).
∙
http://www.bsa.org/southafrica/press/newsreleases/2006-Global-PiracyStudy.cfm, viewed October 16, 2006
21
Global Piracy Rates according to BSA
Third Annual Global Software Piracy Study, May 2006
Country
Piracy Rate %
Vietnam
90
Zimbabwe
90
Indonesia
87
China
86
Pakistan
86
Kazakhstan
85
Ukraine
85
Cameroon
85
Russia
84
Bolivia
83
Paraguay
83
Algeria
83
Zambia
83
Venezuela
82
Botswana
82
Ivory Coast
82
Nigeria
82
Senegal
82
Sebia/Mont'go
81
El Salvador
81
Country
U.S.
New Zealand
Austria
Finland
Denmark
Germany
Sweden
Switzerland
U.K.
Japan
Belgium
Netherlands
Norway
Australia
Israel
Canada
UAE
South Africa
Ireland
Singapore
Piracy Rate %
21
23
26
26
27
27
27
27
27
28
28
30
30
31
32
33
34
36
37
40
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Two big challenges
What can be done?
23
What can be done?
According to The Association for Progressive Communications
Africa IT Policy Monitor, Free Open Source Software (FOSS)
“allows a national government sovereignty over its ICT
infrastructure in terms of security, support, development and
costs.”
1. 47 non-government organizations petitioning
2. Reduces dependency on international suppliers
3. More cost effective
4. Civil society holds biggest responsibility
http://africa.rights.apc.org/?apc=he_1&x=5041201, viewed October 16
24
What can be done?
BSA and IDC make recommendations:
1. Update copyright laws (WIPO, user-end, internet)
2. Create enforcement mechanisms
3. Redirect government resources
(IP enforcement units, cross-border cooperation, training)
4. Improve education and awareness
5. Require public sector to use only legitimate software
http://www.bsa.org/southafrica/press/newsreleases/BSA-IDC-Study-IllustratesEconomic-Gains-to-SA-from-Reducing-Software-Piracy.cfm, viewed October 23, 2006
25
A Motivator?
26


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Physicians examine distant patients using
telecommunications technologies as simple
as telephones and fax machines or as
complex as PCs and interactive multi-media
applications
Fewer than 10 doctors per 100,000 people
14 countries do not have radiologists
Mbarika, Victor. “Is Telemedicine the Panacea for Sub-Saharan Africa’s Medical Nightmare?” Communications of
the ACM, July 2004, Vol. 47, No. 7, pp. 21-24.
27
Mbarika, Victor. “Is Telemedicine the Panacea for Sub-Saharan Africa’s Medical Nightmare?”
Communications of the ACM, July 2004, Vol. 47, No. 7, pp. 21-24.
28
Developing IT in SSA – More Barriers
Than Aids
•No paths to carry
intra-continental
ISPs
•Data travels to
Europe, then back
to Africa
•Poor countries
become poorer
Etta, Florence E., and Laurent Elder, eds.
At the Crossroads: ICT Policy Making in
East Africa. East African Educational
Publishers, Nairobi; 2005.
Source: Musa, Phillip F.,
Peter Meso, and Victor
Mbarika, “Toward
Sustainable Adoption of
Technologies for Human
Development in SubSaharan Africa: Precursors,
Diagnostics, and
Prescriptions.”
Communications of the
Association for Information
Systems, Volume 15, 2005,
pp. 592-608.
29
Developing IT in SSA – E-Readiness

Measured by UN
based on
• Web measure
• Telecommunications
infrastructure
• Human capital

Africa scored
lower on ereadiness than
other regions
Mwangi, Wagaki. “The Social Relations of e-Government Diffusion in Developing Countries: The Case of Rwanda,”
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Vol. 151, 2006, pp. 199-208.
30
Developing IT in SSA – A Special Case

UN’s measure of e-readiness is not all-encompassing and
does not directly apply to SSA
• Does not state relationship between variables
• Rwanda scored low, but is actually more e-ready than some nations
who received higher scores

Must take the country’s (or region’s) characteristics,
investment, and application requirements into context
Mwangi, Wagaki. “The Social Relations of e-Government Diffusion in Developing Countries: The Case of Rwanda,”
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Vol. 151, 2006, pp. 199-208.
31
The “Leapfrog” Effect – Definition



Children’s game
Jump across
Progress by large
jumps instead of
small increments
• Technical leapfrogging
http://www.answers.com/topic/leapfrog, viewed November 11, 2006
32
The “Leapfrog” Effect – How Can IT
Help Developing Nations?

Unanimous recognition
from the World Bank to
the private sector that
IT “can lead to
improved governance,
better management of
human capital
(education, healthcare)”
as well as more
favorable conditions for
investment.
Stimulates economic growth
• Increases productivity (output>input)
 long-term economic growth

Use electronic commerce to gain entry into
international commerce
• Reduces costs and helps even small firms
establish economic efficiency

Helps developing nations skip over several
stages of development
• more potential to grow than developed
nations
 productivity is already high in
developed nations
Mansell, Robin. “Digital Opportunities and the Missing Link for Developing Countries,” Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Vol. 17,
No. 2, 2001, pp.282-295.
33
Mbarika, V., Okoli, C., Byrd, T., Datta, P., “The Neglected Continent of IS Research: A Research Agenda of Sub-Saharan Africa”
Journal of the Association for Information Systems, Vol.12, 3, 2005, pp. 130-170
The “Leapfrog” Effect – Success Cases
South Korea

Both countries
• pushed new technologies
• liberalized the telecommunication
market
• provided government support
• modified the regulatory regime
• encouraged private sector
participation and competition
• moved towards knowledge-based
economies by investing in human
capital
Singapore

Transformed its economies in 2030 years with ICT investment
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US National Intelligence Council
http://www.dni.gov/nic/PDF_GIF_2020_Support/2004_05_05_papers/revolution.doc, viewed Nov. 11, 2006)
The “Leapfrog” Effect – Not an Easy Path

Current IT development problems in SSA
• Under utilization of equipment

Lack of secondary equipment, electricity, training
• Increased dependency on multinational
corporations and expatriate personnel
• socio-cultural conflicts introduced
• Moreover, what Africa has experienced for the most
part so far is not IT transfer but transplantation, the
dumping of boxes without the necessary know-how
http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Comp_Articles/Information_Technology_117.html, viewed
October 20, 2006.
35
The “Leapfrog” Effect –
Not a Foolproof Plan

There is no empirical link between the
diffusion of IT and economic development
• Success of IT varies by culture and country
“It is widely understood that the problem of
promoting e-commerce in a lesser
developed economy cannot be solved by
simply adding more technology, without
simultaneously changing the culture and
the policies in the economy.”
Mansell, Robin. “Digital Opportunities and the Missing Link for Developing Countries,” Oxford Review of Economic
Policy, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2001, pp.282-295.
Bajaj, A. and Leonard, L. N. K. “The CPT Framework: Understanding the Roles of Culture, Policy and Technology
in Promoting Ecommerce Readiness”, Problems and Perspectives in Management, (3), 2004, pp. 242-252.
36
The “Leapfrog” Effect – Cultural
Differences
Drivers
Culture
Policy
Technology
Culture
Trust
Offer courses on the
importance of trust in an
economy, advertising on
the beneficial effects of
trust.
Pass and strictly enforce
consumer protection laws
Require all merchants to
utilize minimum security
standards.
Provide cheap access to
technologies like SSL and
set up national feedback
sites on merchants and
products.
Corruption
Offer courses on the
negative effects of
corruption, as well as
advertise on how
corruption affects
perception within and
outside the economy.
Pass strong legislation
against corruption, and
visibly enforce
sentencing for guilty
parties.
Utilize web access to
make information and
processes in large firms
and government agencies
as transparent as
possible.
Patterns of
Communication
Easy access to education
on how to use chat
rooms and lean
communication methods
such as e-mail and
instant messaging
Offer tax and other
incentives to consumers
that use and firms that
offer instant messaging
and e-mail services.
Provide easy to use email, chat-rooms and
instant messaging to a
large number of
consumers in the
economy.
Bajaj, A. and Leonard, L. N. K. “The CPT Framework: Understanding the Roles of Culture, Policy and Technology in
Promoting Ecommerce Readiness”, Problems and Perspectives in Management, (3), 2004, pp. 242-252.
37
Can “Leapfrogging” Help
EVERYBODY?

The intra-national digital
divide
•
“the gap between individuals, households,
businesses and geographic areas at
different socio-economic levels with regard
both to their opportunities to access ICTs
and to their use of the Internet for a wide
variety of activities”
Inequality in ICT access, use and
skills reflects pre-existing inequality
in other areas of economy and
society in the three countries.
•
Similar findings for South Africa, India,
and China
*Sample sizes: Japan, 7066 South Korea, 1010; Singapore, 1012
Ono, Hiroshi. “Digital Inequality in East Asia; Evidence from Japan,
South Korea and Singapore,” Asian Economic Papers, 2005, pp.
116-139.
38
IT Development in Rwanda
39
Why we chose Rwanda
In spite of Rwanda’s tragic
past, the country has
shocked the world with
an ambitious plan to
become a middle-income
economy in 20 years.
Can they
succeed?
40
Can YOU find Rwanda?
41
http://www.jayzeebear.com/map/africa.gif
Rwanda: Overview






Population - 9,038,000
GDP - $11.24 billion
Government - Republic
Largest City - Kigali
Life Expectancy - 44 years
Literacy Rate - 64%
42
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rwanda, viewed October 23, 2006
Genocide in Rwanda
100 days April-July 1994

An estimated 800,000 to 1,071,000 people died
(12% - 15% of population)
Ended when current president led a rebel force that overthrew
government and seized power

43
HIV/AIDS Effects





250,000(est.) living with HIV
160,000(est.) children orphaned by AIDS
22,000(est.) HIV/AIDS deaths
First Lady’s initiative: ‘Treat Every Child As Your
Own’
At present about half of those in Rwanda who
need treatment for HIV/AIDS are receiving it –
among the highest coverage rates in SubSaharan Africa
http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/rwanda_31039.html, viewed November 2, 2006
https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/rw.html, viewed November 2, 2006
44
Post-Genocide Government



By law, at least a third
of the Parliament
representation must be
female.
The first post-war
presidential and
legislative elections were
held in August and
September 2003
Attempting a free press
45
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rwanda, viewed October 20, 2006
Education in Rwanda



Genocide led to great decrease
in education
Recently recognized need for
secondary education
University enrollment at the
National University of Rwanda
has risen from 49 students in
1963 to 26,796 in 2006 with
39% female
46
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_rwanda, viewed October 20, 2006
Education in Rwanda
London-based VSO (Volunteer Service Organization)
focuses on mainstream education in Rwanda.



Exclusively educated 18,000 children over five years
Promotion of education aided in nearly doubling
number of children attending primary school over ten
years (from 950K to 1.67 million)
Implemented “Valuing Teachers” project; encourages
teachers to stay in Rwanda.
http://www.vso.org.uk/, viewed October 30, 2006
47
IT Education in Rwanda



The Rwandan government has formed a national IT
strategy which links public Higher Education
Institutions and later Private Institutions via a
RWEDNET. There is also a hope that this can be
expanded to link secondary schools and potentially
primary schools together.
There is a big IT skills shortage at the present time
which limits IT education to tertiary institutions and
elite secondary schools.
In October 2006 NEPAD e-Africa Commission launched
a project to further develop ICT in Rwandan schools.
The project will link up schools across Africa.
48
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_rwanda, viewed October 23, 2006
Rwanda’s Plan


NPR report
Vision 2020
• Adopted in 2000
• A middle-income economy 2020
• Rwanda Utility Regulatory Agency (RURA)
established in 2001
• Rwanda Information and Technology Authority
(RITA) established in 2002
Etta, Florence E., and Laurent Elder, eds. At the Crossroads: ICT Policy Making in East Africa. East African
Educational Publishers, Nairobi; 2005.
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4800031 viewed November 5th
http://www.rita.gov.rw, viewed October 25, 2006.
http://www.rita.gov.rw/docs/NICI%202010.pdf, viewed October 25, 2006.
49
Rwanda’s Plan
• Short-term goal
 Use IT for poverty reduction by
improving access to services, education,
and health
• Long-term goal
 Position Rwanda within the global
competitive digital economy
50
Etta, Florence E., and Laurent Elder, eds. At the Crossroads: ICT Policy Making in East Africa. East African
Educational Publishers, Nairobi; 2005.
Rwanda’s Plan

Eight areas of strategic action
• Human capacity
• Infrastructure
• E-government
• Community access
• IT in education
• Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)
• Regulatory and legal issues
• Private sector facilitation
Etta, Florence E., and Laurent Elder, eds. At the Crossroads: ICT Policy Making in East Africa. East African
Educational Publishers, Nairobi; 2005.
51
IT Suppliers for Rwanda





Technology
• The Electronic Tools Company (USA Electricity and Fiber-Optic networks)
• State electricity company will install fiber-optic cables
• Rwanda Terracom (private)
• Rwandatel (private)
Human Capital
• Kigali Institute for Science and Technology (KIST)
• National University of Rwanda (NUR)
Computers (hardware)
• Rwanda Computer Network
Software
• “A software firm has translated a free open-source version of Microsoft Office into
Kinyarwanda, the main language”
Investors
• World Bank ($10 mil)
• private investors
• Rwandan government
• UN
• Swedish International Development and Cooperation Agency (SIDA)
52
http://www.newtimes.co.rw/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=7596&Itemid=1
http://www.unctad.org/Templates/webflyer.asp?docid=7455&intItemID=1528&lang=1
english.people.com.cn/200608/02/eng20060802_289174.html
Rwanda Internet Exchange (RINEX)
•4 months-long project funded by SIDA
•Aim
•Implement IXP in Kigali
•Create local human capacity
53
Etta, Florence E., and Laurent Elder, eds. At the Crossroads: ICT Policy Making in East Africa. East African Educational
Publishers, Nairobi; 2005.
Why is Rwanda Different?

25 other SSA countries (Zambia, Kenya,
e.g.) started planning earlier, but still have
not come up with a plan
54
Why Rwanda is different

Emigrants and refugee returnees
• Observed benefits of IT in Singapore
and its similarities to Rwanda
 Small land mass and population
 Rwanda’s multilingual status
• Conveyed these benefits to Rwandans
• Human resource development and
investment

Epistemic (knowledge) communities
• Global IT experts
 Non-profit organizations
 UN Task Force on Inf. And Comm.
Technologies
Mwangi, Wagaki. “The Social Relations of e-Government Diffusion in Developing Countries: The Case of Rwanda,”
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Vol. 151, 2006, pp. 199-208.
55
Why Rwanda is different

Political leadership
• Paul Kagame
• “Champion” leadership
“few, if any, African leaders have demonstrated
comparable levels of commitment or even
offered minimalist visions of the same
whether to the domestic or international
publics”

Policy environment
• Rwanda is only a decade old
 Civil war destroyed preexisting political institutions
• Lack of corruption
GOVERNMENT HAD FREE REIGN
Mwangi, Wagaki. “The Social Relations of e-Government Diffusion in Developing Countries: The Case of Rwanda,”
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Vol. 151, 2006, pp. 199-208.
https://www.jumptv.com/en/channel/rwandatv/ -- Rwanda International Conference
56
Most important for Rwanda

Political leadership and undercontested environment are the
most important
• Kenya’s problems with egovernment

Their convergence brought
success
“It is this history that Rwanda was freed from briefly by
genocide, and enabled it to construct new norms”
Mwangi, Wagaki. “The Social Relations of e-Government Diffusion in Developing Countries: The Case of Rwanda,”
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Vol. 151, 2006, pp. 199-208.
57
Challenges

Lack of skilled human resource
pool
• 1% of total population enroll at
the tertiary level
• 5% of workforce received
secondary education
• 100/8.3 million engineers
• 0.1% of population are trained
managers

Limited telecommunications
infrastructure and access
Inadequate financial resources
Weak ICT business base


“takes into account the
developmental challenges facing
the country within the context of the
current status of its key
socioeconomic indicators; with
specific reference to the fact that
Rwanda has a high illiteracy rate,
high primary school drop-out rate
and very low secondary school
enrolment rate. That about 64% of
the population living below the
poverty line. That the majority of the
working population (91.1%) is actively
involved in agriculture with only 1.7%
working in the industrial sector and
7.2% in the service sector of the
economy.”
--NICI 2010 Plan
Etta, Florence E., and Laurent Elder, eds. At the Crossroads: ICT Policy Making in East
Africa. East African Educational Publishers, Nairobi; 2005.
http://www.dfid.gov.uk/countries/africa/rwanda.asp, viewed Nov. 11, 2006.
58
Challenges –
Weak ICT Business
Base
Table 15.2: Use of IT in Rwanda
Economic
Sub-Sector
Sector
Estimated level of IT engagement
Non-IT ICT Basic
Only
IT
Networked
IT
Intensive
IT
Public
sector
Local Gov’t
46.4
5.7
34.9
13.0
0.0
Private
sector
Large
Businesses
0.0
2.2
9.7
77.8
10.2
SMEs
18.1
25.1
17.5
34.8
4.4
Source: e-readiness report 2003
Etta, Florence E., and Laurent Elder, eds. At the Crossroads: ICT Policy Making in East Africa. East African
Educational Publishers, Nairobi; 2005.
59
Rwanda’s Future
“In Rwanda’s case, the leapfrogging option may be the only option available. Given the
high population density and growth, there is recognition that the country can no longer
sustain itself on an unproductive agricultural sector. Given the high transport costs and
the absence of many raw materials, there are also difficulties associated with
developing the industrial sector.”
– Report from Department for International Development (UK)
Rwanda has all the necessary groundwork for success
•
•
•
•

Market liberalization
Government support
Focus on education
Phased in competition
Useful websites
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•
•
•
•
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http://www.rwandagateway.org/ -- Rwanda Gateway
http://www.cgisnur.org/ -- Rwanda Global Information Systems
http://www.nur.ac.rw/ -- National University of Rwanda
http://www.kist.ac.rw/ -- Kigali Institute of Science and Technology
http://www.erwanda.org/ -- Promotes ICT development in Rwanda
http://www.rita.gov.rw -- Rwanda Information Technology Authority
http://www.dfid.gov.uk/countries/africa/rwanda.asp, viewed Nov. 11, 2006.
Etta, Florence E., and Laurent Elder, eds. At the Crossroads: ICT Policy Making in East Africa. East African Educational
Publishers, Nairobi; 2005.
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Recommendations For SSA
Education should be TOP priority. Allow non-profits to
continue aiding in education promotion. Minister of
Education should establish benchmarks and seek
consultations from more developed nations to help evaluate
progress.
Privatization of IT sector – Encourages open market
competition and lowers prices
Equal access – Maximize open-sourcing to avoid creating
a gap between the rich and the poor
Establish anti-piracy laws to encourage private IT
investment. Early suppression of illegal activity could build a
greater respect for technologies that will greatly benefit
many lives across Africa.
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Recommendations for SSA
Develop IT taking the “Late Majority” approach.
Implement an IT “template” for the nation, such as
open-source software, to avoid high costs and to
keep risks low.
Do not just flood the continent with
technologies – teach how to fish rather than
provide fish
Source: Musa, Phillip F., Peter Meso, and Victor Mbarika, “Toward Sustainable Adoption of
Technologies for Human Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Precursors, Diagnostics,
and Prescriptions.” Communications of the Association for Information Systems, Volume
15, 2005, pp. 592-608.
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Conclusion
Twelve years since the genocide, Rwanda is making strides
towards becoming the IT hub of Sub-Saharan Africa.
Established national authorities and comprehensive development
plans prove the government’s motivation for progress.
More citizens are becoming educated and that desire is spreading.
Rwanda’s president is committed to social and economic stability
and intolerant to corruption.
Given the motivation for strategic planning and education Rwanda
is ready to implement technology. Educational use, connection to
world, private investment
Hope for SSA
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Conclusion
IT does not guarantee
economic prosperity. It must be
partnered with open markets,
education, human rights,
freedom of speech and clean
government.
Mougayar, William. “Power of Information Technology Awaits Unleashing.”
http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/display.article?id=4168. Viewed October 27, 2006.
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Questions?
Thank you for your attention!
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