Nutrition - Paignton Online

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Transcript Nutrition - Paignton Online

Nutrition
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Energy
The sun
provides
solar
energy.
Plants convert
solar energy into
chemical energy
through
photosynthesis.
The chemical
energy is stored
as glucose.
Animals eat
plants and
use them as
an energy
source.
Humans eat
plants and
animals.
The nutrients
they contain
supply our
energy needs.
Energy is needed by anything that does work. We
measure energy in kilojoules (4.2 kJ = 1 Calorie).
Our bodies do work when we breathe, move and grow
and they need energy to do all these things. However,
if we take in too much energy, our body stores it as fat.
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Energy in food
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Nutrients in food
Foods contain nutrients – these are substances we
need to help us live and grow.
The main nutrients we need are:
protein
fat
carbohydrates.
These provide our bodies with energy.
Our bodies also need:
vitamins
minerals
fibre
water.
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Protein
Protein comes from meat and fish,
eggs, dairy foods, cereals and pulses.
Proteins are made from amino acids.
Protein is needed to grow and repair
body cells. It also provides energy.
Babies, children and pregnant women
need more protein than the average
adult.
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Protein in food
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Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are made up of two main groups:
starches and sugars.
About 60% of the carbohydrate in British diets comes
from starch.
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Carbohydrates – sugars
Sugars are found in cakes, biscuits,
desserts, milk, fruit and vegetables.
The most common sugars are glucose,
fructose (fruit sugar) and galactose.
Sugars, especially glucose, provide an
instant burst of energy to the body. If the
diet is low in glucose, the body will make it
up using protein.
Most of us eat too much sugar, which is
bad for our teeth and can make us fat.
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Carbohydrate – starches
Cereal, pulses, pasta and potatoes all
contain starches.
Starches are made from long chains of
glucose molecules. These chains need to
be broken down to produce glucose, from
which energy is released.
Starches release glucose more slowly than
sugars and so energy is released over a
longer period of time.
How much we need depends on how active
our bodies are. We need more energy for
running than for sitting still.
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Carbohydrates in food
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Who needs what and why?
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Fat
Fats are made up of glycerol and different
types of fatty acids.
Saturated fats tend to be solid at room
temperature (like butter), unsaturated fats
tend to be liquid at room temperature (like
olive oil).
Fat provides energy and we need it to
absorb some fat-based vitamins.
Milk and cheese, meat, eggs, nuts and
seeds all contain fat.
Too much fat, particularly saturated fat, is
bad for health, and no more than one third
of our energy should come from fats.
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Fat in food
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Know your potatoes
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Vitamins
Vitamins are a range of substances that our bodies
need to stay healthy.
Each vitamin has a different job to do.
We only need small quantities of vitamins but it is
important that we include all of them in our diet.
We should be able to get all the vitamins
we need from the foods we eat, but vitamin
supplements can be useful if our diet is
missing important nutrients.
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Vitamin A
You can always
find me in carrots,
eggs and cheese
You need me
to form teeth
and bones.
I also help you to
grow!
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Vitamin B
Pyridoxine (B6) is essential
for the production of red
blood cells. Vitamin B12
helps with growth.
Niacin (B3) is necessary
for the digestion of food
and a healthy nervous
system.
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There are lots
of different B
vitamins.
Thiamin (B1) is
good for your
nervous system,
and is found in
wholemeal grain,
green vegetables
and pork.
Riboflavin (B2) gives
you healthy hair, skin
and nails and is in liver
and marmite.
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Vitamin C
I’m found in citrus
fruit, strawberries,
tomatoes and
peppers.
I help your
cells grow
and stay
healthy.
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Vitamin D
I’m special – I help
you to absorb calcium
to give you strong
bones and teeth.
I’m found in oily
fish and eggs
and can be
made by
sunlight.
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Vitamin E
I help build body cells, protect lungs
from damage by pollution, slow the
aging process and lower the risk of
heart disease!
You’ll find me
in vegetable
oil, cereals and
nuts.
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Minerals
Minerals are substances required to keep our
bodies healthy.
The important ones are:
calcium
magnesium
phosphorous
potassium
sodium.
We also needs small amounts of copper, iron, zinc,
iodine, fluoride and selenium.
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Major minerals
Mineral
Main Function
Main Sources
Calcium
Makes bones and teeth strong. Milk, cheese, yogurt and
Helps blood clotting and nerve canned fish are rich
function.
sources.
Sodium
Regulates our body’s water
content. Helps nerve function.
Salt
Potassium
Helps functioning of cells.
All foods except sugars,
fats and oils.
Magnesium
Involved in energy transfer and Wholegrain cereals, nuts
in cell and muscle functioning. and spinach are good
sources.
Phosphorus Makes bones and teeth strong. Milk, cheese, meat, fish
Helps us get energy from food. and eggs are good
sources.
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Trace minerals
Mineral
Main Function
Main Sources
Iron
Makes red blood cells,
which carry oxygen
around the body.
Red meat and offal are rich
sources.
Zinc
Essential for growth.
Milk, cheese, meat, eggs and
fish, wholegrain cereals and
pulses.
Iodine
Formation of thyroid
hormones.
Milk, seafood, seaweed.
Iodised foods such as salt.
Fluoride
Helps to make tooth
enamel strong.
Fluoridated water, tea, fish and
toothpaste.
Selenium Acts as an antioxidant.
Protects cell membranes
against oxidation.
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Cereals, meat, fish, offal, cheese
and eggs.
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Fibre
What is it?
Fibre helps us to feel full and we need it to digest our
food (prevents constipation and diseases of the bowel)
but it provides no energy or nutrients.
Where does it come from?
Wholegrain breads, cereals, pulses, nuts and dried fruit.
How much do we need?
We should take in about 18g of fibre a day but the average
intake in western countries is half that.
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Getting your daily fibre
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Drink lots of water!
Water makes up three-quarters of our body weight and
is essential to all forms of life.
To maintain a healthy body
we should drink between
six and eight glasses of
water a day.
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But does it really matter?
Our diet isn’t the only reason we
become ill, but studies have
proved that a poor diet can
increase our chances of getting
cancer or suffering from heart
disease.
We should look at our diet as part of our lifestyle.
Improving it, together with not smoking and taking exercise
can make a real difference to whether we keep well.
The rules are simple, as the next screen shows.
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Rules for healthy eating
Enjoy your food!
Eat a variety of different foods.
Eat the right amount to be a healthy weight.
Eat plenty of foods rich in starch and fibre.
Eat plenty of fruit and vegetables.
Don’t eat too many foods that contain a lot of fat.
Don’t have sugary foods and drinks too often.
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Summary
To keep them fit and healthy, our bodies need the
correct balance of:
protein
fat
carbohydrates
vitamins
minerals
fibre
water.
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