money market

download report

Transcript money market

CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
PowerPoint Lectures for
Principles of
Macroeconomics, 9e
; ;
By
Karl E. Case,
Ray C. Fair &
Sharon M. Oster
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
1 of 57
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
2 of 57
PART III THE CORE OF MACROECONOMIC THEORY
12
Aggregate Demand
in the Goods and
Money Markets
Prepared by:
Fernando & Yvonn Quijano
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
PART III THE CORE OF MACROECONOMIC THEORY
Aggregate Demand
in the Goods and
Money Markets
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
12
11
CHAPTER OUTLINE
Planned Investment and the Interest Rate
Other Determinants of Planned Investment
Planned Aggregate Expenditure and the
Interest Rate
Equilibrium in Both the Goods and Money
Markets
Policy Effects in the Goods and Money
Markets
Expansionary Policy Effects
Contractionary Policy Effects
The Macroeconomic Policy Mix
The Aggregate Demand (AD) Curve
The Aggregate Demand Curve: A Warning
Other Reasons for a Downward-Sloping
Aggregate Demand Curve
Aggregate Expenditure and Aggregate Demand
Shifts of the Aggregate Demand Curve
Looking Ahead: Determining the Price
Level
Appendix: The IS-LM Diagram
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
4 of 57
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
goods market The market in which goods and
services are exchanged and in which the
equilibrium level of aggregate output is
determined.
money market The market in which financial
instruments are exchanged and in which the
equilibrium level of the interest rate is determined.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
5 of 57
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Planned Investment and the Interest Rate
 FIGURE 12.1 Planned Investment Schedule
Planned investment spending is a negative function of the interest rate.
An increase in the interest rate from 3 percent to 6 percent reduces planned investment from I0 to I1.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
6 of 57
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Reducing the interest rate, ceteris paribus, is likely to:
a.
Increase the level of planned investment spending.
b.
Decrease the level of planned investment.
c.
Shift the demand for money curve to the right.
d. Shift the supply of money curve to the right.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
7 of 57
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Reducing the interest rate, ceteris paribus, is likely to:
a.
Increase the level of planned investment spending.
b.
Decrease the level of planned investment.
c.
Shift the demand for money curve to the right.
d. Shift the supply of money curve to the right.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
8 of 57
Planned Investment and the Interest Rate
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Other Determinants of Planned Investment
The assumption that planned investment depends
only on the interest rate is obviously a
simplification, just as is the assumption that
consumption depends only on income. In practice,
the decision of a firm on how much to invest
depends on, among other things, its expectation of
future sales.
The optimism or pessimism of entrepreneurs
about the future course of the economy can have
an important effect on current planned investment.
Keynes used the phrase animal spirits to describe
the feelings of entrepreneurs, and he argued that
these feelings affect investment decisions.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
9 of 57
Planned Investment and the Interest Rate
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Other Determinants of Planned Investment
Interest Rates and
Investment Spending
A recent study by Simon
Gilchrist, Fabio Natalucci,
and Egon Zakrajsek finds
that interest rates have a
powerful effect on the
behavior of firms.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
10 of 57
Planned Investment and the Interest Rate
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Planned Aggregate Expenditure and the Interest Rate
We can use the fact that planned investment
depends on the interest rate to consider how
planned aggregate expenditure (AE) depends on
the interest rate.
Recall that planned aggregate expenditure is the
sum of consumption, planned investment, and
government purchases.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
AE ≡ C + I + G
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
11 of 57
Planned Investment and the Interest Rate
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Planned Aggregate Expenditure and the Interest Rate
 FIGURE 12.2 The Effect of an Interest Rate Increase on Planned Aggregate Expenditure
An increase in the interest rate from 3 percent to 6 percent lowers planned aggregate
expenditure and thus reduces equilibrium income from Y0 to Y1.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
12 of 57
Planned Investment and the Interest Rate
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Planned Aggregate Expenditure and the Interest Rate
The effects of a change in the interest rate include:
 A high interest rate (r) discourages planned
investment (I).
 Planned investment is a part of planned
aggregate expenditure (AE).
 Thus, when the interest rate rises, planned
aggregate expenditure (AE) at every level of
income falls.
 Finally, a decrease in planned aggregate
expenditure lowers equilibrium output (income)
(Y) by a multiple of the initial decrease in
planned investment.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
13 of 57
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Fill in the blanks. A higher interest rate __________ planned
investment and causes planned aggregate expenditure to
shift ___________.
a.
increases; upward
b.
increases; downward
c.
decreases; upward
d.
decreases; downward
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
14 of 57
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Fill in the blanks. A higher interest rate __________ planned
investment and causes planned aggregate expenditure to
shift ___________.
a.
increases; upward
b.
increases; downward
c.
decreases; upward
d. decreases; downward
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
15 of 57
Planned Investment and the Interest Rate
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Planned Aggregate Expenditure and the Interest Rate
Using a convenient shorthand:
r  I  AE  Y 
r  I  AE  Y 
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
16 of 57
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Equilibrium in Both the Goods and Money Markets
An increase in the interest rate (r) decreases output
(Y) in the goods market because an increase in r
lowers planned investment.
When income (Y) increase, this shifts the money
demand curve to the right, which increases the
interest rate (r) with a fixed money supply. We can
thus write:
Y  M d  r 
Y  M  r 
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
d
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
17 of 57
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Which of the following statements describes the relationship
between the goods market and the money market?
a.
An increase in money demand.
b.
An increase in money supply.
c.
A decrease in the interest rate.
d.
An increase in both the supply and the demand for money.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
18 of 57
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Which of the following statements describes the relationship
between the goods market and the money market?
a.
An increase in money demand.
b.
An increase in money supply.
c.
A decrease in the interest rate.
d.
An increase in both the supply and the demand for money.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
19 of 57
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Equilibrium in Both the Goods and Money Markets
 FIGURE 12.3 Links Between the Goods Market and the Money Market
Planned investment depends on the interest rate, and money demand depends on aggregate output.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
20 of 57
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Which of the following is a link between the goods market and the
money market?
a.
Income has considerable influence on the demand for money
in the money market.
b.
The interest rate has significant effects on planned
investment in the goods market.
c.
Both a and b above.
d. None of the above. The goods market and the money market
are not linked in the ways described above.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
21 of 57
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Which of the following is a link between the goods market and the
money market?
a.
Income has considerable influence on the demand for money
in the money market.
b.
The interest rate has significant effects on planned
investment in the goods market.
c. Both a and b above.
d. None of the above. The goods market and the money market
are not linked in the ways described above.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
22 of 57
Policy Effects in the Goods and Money Markets
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Expansionary Policy Effects
expansionary fiscal policy An increase in
government spending or a reduction in net taxes
aimed at increasing aggregate output (income)
(Y).
expansionary monetary policy An increase in
the money supply aimed at increasing aggregate
output (income) (Y).
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
23 of 57
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Which of the following policy changes would be considered
expansionary monetary policy?
a.
An increase in the money supply.
b.
An increase in net taxes.
c.
An increase in government spending.
d.
An increase in government borrowing.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
24 of 57
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Which of the following policy changes would be considered
expansionary monetary policy?
a.
An increase in the money supply.
b.
An increase in net taxes.
c.
An increase in government spending.
d.
An increase in government borrowing.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
25 of 57
Policy Effects in the Goods and Money Markets
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Expansionary Policy Effects
Expansionary Fiscal Policy: An Increase in Government
Purchases (G) or a Decrease in Net Taxes (T)
crowding-out effect The tendency for increases
in government spending to cause reductions in
private investment spending.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
26 of 57
Policy Effects in the Goods and Money Markets
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Expansionary Policy Effects
Expansionary Fiscal Policy: An Increase in Government
Purchases (G) or a Decrease in Net Taxes (T)
 FIGURE 12.4 The
Crowding-Out Effect
An increase in government
spending G from G0 to G1
shifts the planned aggregate
expenditure schedule from 1
to 2.
The crowding-out effect of the
decrease in planned
investment (brought about by
the increased interest rate)
then shifts the planned
aggregate expenditure
schedule from 2 to 3.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
27 of 57
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
An increase in government spending (G),
a.
Increases planned aggregate expenditure, increases
aggregate output, but may also cause a decrease in planned
investment, which reduces both planned aggregate
expenditure and aggregate output.
b. Increases planned aggregate expenditure, increases
aggregate output, and spurs even more planned investment,
which further increases aggregate output.
c.
Decreases aggregate expenditure, planned investment, and
aggregate output.
d. All of the cases above have equal chance of occurring.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
28 of 57
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
An increase in government spending (G),
a.
Increases planned aggregate expenditure, increases
aggregate output, but may also cause a decrease in
planned investment, which reduces both planned
aggregate expenditure and aggregate output.
b. Increases planned aggregate expenditure, increases
aggregate output, and spurs even more planned investment,
which further increases aggregate output.
c.
Decreases aggregate expenditure, planned investment, and
aggregate output.
d. All of the cases above have equal chance of occurring.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
29 of 57
Policy Effects in the Goods and Money Markets
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Expansionary Policy Effects
Expansionary Fiscal Policy: An Increase in Government
Purchases (G) or a Decrease in Net Taxes (T)
interest sensitivity or insensitivity of planned
investment The responsiveness of planned
investment spending to changes in the interest
rate. Interest sensitivity means that planned
investment spending changes a great deal in
response to changes in the interest rate; interest
insensitivity means little or no change in planned
investment as a result of changes in the interest
rate.
Effects of an expansionary fiscal policy:
G  Y  M d  r  I 
Y increasesless than if r did not increase
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
30 of 57
Policy Effects in the Goods and Money Markets
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Expansionary Policy Effects
Expansionary Monetary Policy: An Increase in the
Money Supply
Effects of an expansionary monetary policy:
M s  r  I  Y  M d 
r decreasesless than if M
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
d
did not increase
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
31 of 57
Policy Effects in the Goods and Money Markets
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Contractionary Policy Effects
Contractionary Fiscal Policy: A Decrease in Government
Spending (G) or an Increase in Net Taxes (T)
contractionary fiscal policy A decrease in
government spending or an increase in net taxes
aimed at decreasing aggregate output (income)
(Y).
Effects of a contractionary fiscal policy:
G  or T  Y  M d  r  I 
Y decreasesless than if r did not decrease
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
32 of 57
Policy Effects in the Goods and Money Markets
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Contractionary Policy Effects
Contractionary Monetary Policy: A Decrease in the
Money Supply
contractionary monetary policy A decrease in
the money supply aimed at decreasing aggregate
output (income) (Y).
Effects of a contractionary monetary policy:
M s  r  I  Y  M d 
r increasesless than if M
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
d
did not decrease
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
33 of 57
Policy Effects in the Goods and Money Markets
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
The Macroeconomic Policy Mix
policy mix The combination of monetary and
fiscal policies in use at a given time.
TABLE 12.1 The Effects of the Macroeconomic Policy Mix
Fiscal Policy
Expansionary
Contractionary
( G or  T )
( G or  T )
Expansionary
( M s )
Y , r ?, I ?, C 
Y ?, r , I , C ?
Contractionary
( M s )
Y ?, r , I , C ?
Y , r ?, I ?, C 
Monetary
Policy
Key :
: Variable increases.
: Variable decreases.
? : Forces push the variable in different directions . Without additional informatio n, we cannot
specify which way the variable moves.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
34 of 57
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Which policy mix favors investment spending over government
spending?
a. Expansionary fiscal policy and contractionary monetary policy.
b.
An increase in the money supply and a fall in government
purchases.
c.
Both expansionary fiscal policy and expansionary monetary
policy.
d.
None of the above. No policy mix favors investment over
government spending.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
35 of 57
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Which policy mix favors investment spending over government
spending?
a. Expansionary fiscal policy and contractionary monetary policy.
b. An increase in the money supply and a fall in
government purchases.
c.
Both expansionary fiscal policy and expansionary monetary
policy.
d.
None of the above. No policy mix favors investment over
government spending.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
36 of 57
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
The Aggregate Demand (AD) Curve
aggregate demand The total demand for goods
and services in the economy.
aggregate demand (AD) curve A curve that
shows the negative relationship between
aggregate output (income) and the price level.
Each point on the AD curve is a point at which
both the goods market and the money market are
in equilibrium.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
37 of 57
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
The Aggregate Demand (AD) Curve
 FIGURE 12.5 The Impact of an Increase in the Price Level on the Economy—Assuming No
Changes in G, T, and Ms
This figure shows that when P increases, Y decreases.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
38 of 57
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
The Aggregate Demand (AD) Curve
 FIGURE 12.6 The Aggregate
Demand (AD) Curve
At all points along the AD curve, both
the goods market and the money
market are in equilibrium. The policy
variables G, T, and Ms are fixed.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
39 of 57
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Let P equal the aggregate price level. Assuming that G, T, and MS
remain the same, the impact of an increase in the price level on
the economy can be described as follows:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
 P   M d   r   I   AE
 P   M d   r   I   AE
 P   M d   r   I   AE
 P   M d   r   I   AE
 P   M d   r   I   AE
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
40 of 57
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Let P equal the aggregate price level. Assuming that G, T, and MS
remain the same, the impact of an increase in the price level on
the economy can be described as follows:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
 P   M d   r   I   AE
 P   M d   r   I   AE
 P  M  r  I  AE
d
 P   M d   r   I   AE
 P   M d   r   I   AE
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
41 of 57
The Aggregate Demand (AD) Curve
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
The Aggregate Demand Curve: A Warning
It is important that you realize what the aggregate
demand curve represents.
The aggregate demand curve is more complex
than a simple individual or market demand curve.
The AD curve is not a market demand curve, and
it is not the sum of all market demand curves in
the economy.
To understand what the aggregate demand curve
represents, you must understand the interaction
between the goods market and the money
markets.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
42 of 57
The Aggregate Demand (AD) Curve
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Other Reasons for a Downward-Sloping Aggregate Demand Curve
The Consumption Link
The consumption link provides another reason for
the AD curve’s downward slope.
An increase in the price level increases the
demand for money, which leads to an increase in
the interest rate, which leads to a decrease in
consumption (as well as planned investment),
which leads to a decrease in aggregate output
(income).
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
43 of 57
The Aggregate Demand (AD) Curve
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Other Reasons for a Downward-Sloping Aggregate Demand Curve
The Consumption Link
The initial decrease in consumption (brought about
by the increase in the interest rate) contributes to
the overall decrease in output.
Planned investment does not bear all the burden
of providing the link from a higher interest rate to a
lower level of aggregate output.
Decreased consumption brought about by a higher
interest rate also contributes to this effect.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
44 of 57
The Aggregate Demand (AD) Curve
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Other Reasons for a Downward-Sloping Aggregate Demand Curve
The Real Wealth Effect
real wealth, or real balance, effect The change
in consumption brought about by a change in real
wealth that results from a change in the price level.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
45 of 57
The Aggregate Demand (AD) Curve
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Aggregate Expenditure and Aggregate Demand
At equilibrium, planned aggregate expenditure
(AE ≡ C + I + G) and aggregate output (Y) are
equal:
equilibrium condition: C + I + G = Y
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
46 of 57
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Along the aggregate demand curve, each point represents:
a.
Equilibrium in the goods market, regardless of the equilibrium
situation in the money market.
b.
Equilibrium in the money market, regardless of the
equilibrium situation in the goods market.
c.
Simultaneous equilibrium in both the goods and money
markets.
d.
Macroeconomic equilibrium, or equilibrium in all markets of
the economy.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
47 of 57
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Along the aggregate demand curve, each point represents:
a.
Equilibrium in the goods market, regardless of the equilibrium
situation in the money market.
b.
Equilibrium in the money market, regardless of the
equilibrium situation in the goods market.
c.
Simultaneous equilibrium in both the goods and money
markets.
d.
Macroeconomic equilibrium, or equilibrium in all markets of
the economy.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
48 of 57
The Aggregate Demand (AD) Curve
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Shifts of the Aggregate Demand Curve
 FIGURE 12.7 The Effect of an
Increase in Money Supply on the AD
Curve
An increase in the money supply (Ms)
causes the aggregate demand curve to
shift to the right, from AD0 to AD1. This
shift occurs because the increase in
Ms lowers the interest rate, which
increases planned investment (and
thus planned aggregate expenditure).
The final result is an increase in output
at each possible price level.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
49 of 57
The Aggregate Demand (AD) Curve
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Shifts of the Aggregate Demand Curve
 FIGURE 12.8 The Effect of an
Increase in Government Purchases or a
Decrease in Net Taxes on the AD Curve
An increase in government purchases
(G) or a decrease in net taxes (T)
causes the aggregate demand curve to
shift to the right, from AD0 to AD1. The
increase in G increases planned
aggregate expenditure, which leads to
an increase in output at each possible
price level. A decrease in T causes
consumption to rise. The higher
consumption then increases planned
aggregate expenditure, which leads to
an increase in output at each possible
price level.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
50 of 57
The Aggregate Demand (AD) Curve
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Shifts of the Aggregate Demand Curve
 FIGURE 12.9 Factors That Shift the Aggregate Demand Curve
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
51 of 57
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Which of the following policy mixes consistently shifts the
aggregate demand curve to the right?
a.
Expansionary monetary policy accompanied by
contractionary fiscal policy.
b.
Contractionary monetary policy accompanied by
contractionary fiscal policy.
c.
Contractionary monetary policy accompanied by
expansionary fiscal policy.
d.
Expansionary monetary policy accompanied by expansionary
fiscal policy.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
52 of 57
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
Which of the following policy mixes consistently shifts the
aggregate demand curve to the right?
a.
Expansionary monetary policy accompanied by
contractionary fiscal policy.
b.
Contractionary monetary policy accompanied by
contractionary fiscal policy.
c.
Contractionary monetary policy accompanied by
expansionary fiscal policy.
d. Expansionary monetary policy accompanied by
expansionary fiscal policy.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
53 of 57
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
REVIEW TERMS AND CONCEPTS
aggregate demand
aggregate demand (AD) curve
contractionary fiscal policy
contractionary monetary policy
crowding-out effect
expansionary fiscal policy
expansionary monetary policy
goods market
interest sensitivity or insensitivity of planned
investment
money market
policy mix
real wealth, or real balance, effect
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
54 of 57
APPENDIX A
THE IS-LM DIAGRAM
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
THE IS CURVE
An IS curve illustrates the negative relationship
between the equilibrium value of aggregate output
(income) (Y) and the interest rate in the goods
market.
 FIGURE 12A.1 The IS Curve
Each point on the IS curve
corresponds to the equilibrium
point in the goods market for
the given interest rate.
When government spending (G)
increases, the IS curve shifts to
the right, from IS0 to IS1.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
55 of 57
APPENDIX A
THE IS-LM DIAGRAM
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
THE LM CURVE
An LM curve illustrates the positive relationship
between the equilibrium value of the interest rate
and aggregate output (income) (Y) in the money
market.
 FIGURE 12A.2 The LM Curve
Each point on the LM curve
corresponds to the equilibrium
point in the money market for
the given value of aggregate
output (income).
Money supply (Ms) increases
shift the LM curve to the right,
from LM0 to LM1.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
56 of 57
APPENDIX A
THE IS-LM DIAGRAM
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
THE IS-LM DIAGRAM
The IS-LM diagram is a way of depicting
graphically the determination of aggregate output
(income) and the interest rate in the goods and
money markets.
 FIGURE 12A.3 The IS-LM
Diagram
The point at which the IS and
LM curves intersect
corresponds to the point at
which both the goods market
and the money market are in
equilibrium.
The equilibrium values of
aggregate output and the
interest rate are Y0 and r0.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
57 of 57
APPENDIX A
THE IS-LM DIAGRAM
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
THE IS-LM DIAGRAM
 FIGURE 12A.4 An Increase in Government Purchases (G)
When G increases, the IS curve shifts to the right.
This increases the equilibrium value of both Y and r.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
58 of 57
APPENDIX A
THE IS-LM DIAGRAM
CHAPTER 12 Aggregate Demand in the Goods and Money Markets
THE IS-LM DIAGRAM
 FIGURE 12A.5 An Increase in the Money Supply (Ms)
When Ms increases, the LM curve shifts to the right.
This increases the equilibrium value of Y and decreases the equilibrium value of r.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Principles of Macroeconomics 9e by Case, Fair and Oster
59 of 57