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National Intellectual Property
Strategies, Some Examples
and Their Significance
IP Strategy Workshop
June, 2005
Maputo, Mozambique
WIPO Intellectual Property and New Technologies Division
National IP Strategies
• National IP strategies are policy documents
on IP developed by governments.
• The documents outline the IP types, their
common stakeholders and how to grant legal
protection to their owners.
National IP Strategies
• The documents state the key departments and
institutions including R&Ds involved with
innovations and any collaborations.
• Their objective is to facilitate economic
prosperity for the IP rights holders by
enabling efficient exploitation of their IP
Stakeholders commonly involved in
developing IP Strategies:
The National IP Offices
The R&D Institutions
Universities and Polytechnics
Ministries of Trade and Industry
Chambers of Commerce
Inventors’ Associations
Ministry of Legal Affairs,
Legal Practitioners, accountants, etc.
WIPO as Collaborator in IP
Strategy Development
• WIPO offers guidance and assistance
• when approached by any member states to
develop IP Strategies
• Some of the countries which have received
such assistance from WIPO include
Romania, Ethiopia, Barbados, Colombia.
The National IP Strategies in
WIPO IP Asset Database
• Summaries of fourteen National IP
Strategies are available in the WIPO IP
Strategies Database;
• Australia, Canada, China, Denmark,
Hungary, Philippines, Romania, South
Africa, the United Kingdom, Czech
Republic, India, Japan, Denmark, Ethiopia
and The European Union.
Examples of IP Strategies and
their Main Features
1. South Africa White Paper On Science
and Technology, 1996.
– Published by the Department Of Arts, Culture,
Science and Technology, in 2001.
– Outlines policy framework for innovation
– Aims at production, assimilation and
exploitation of novelty in economic sphere
Backing Australia’s Ability
--An Innovation Action Plan for the Future
2001, launched May, 2004
– Aims at strengthening Australia’s ability to
generate ideas, undertake research, and to
accelerate their commercial exploitation.
– Developing and retaining Australian skilled
human reservoir.
– Overseen by a Science and Innovation
Ministerial Council chaired by the Prime
Minister, advised by a Chief Scientist
Canada: Science and Technology for the
New Century: A Federal Strategy,
1966, launched 2002
– 10 year innovation strategy, objectives are:
– Improving performance in research and
development by responding to economic
challenges and opportunities;
– Promoting commercial application of
– Attracting foreign direct investment
– Stresses importance of IP strategy for publicly
funded projects in universities
China: The Premier’s March 2003
Annual Congress Report Outlines the
– National rejuvenation through science, technology,
education and sustainable development,
– Highlights role of IP to harness national brands, to
increase international competitiveness,
– Underlines role of R&D, IP Asset Protection and
use to enhance productivity and sustainable
China links IP with technological
• Feb. 2005 announcement that Ministry of
Information Industry will require patenting
as a pre-condition to technological
evaluation and support;
• “Lack of self-developed technology
invariably puts domestic users in an
embarassing position”.
Ethiopia: Strategic Plan 1996-1998 E.C
– Produced by the IP Office with the collaboration
of the Judiciary, Chamber of Commerce,
Customs, Police, the Ministries of Science and
Technology, Education, Culture and Justice
– Aims at promoting, creation, protection, and
commercialization of IP
– Identifies key areas of competitive advantage;
– Identifies challenges;
– Aims at creating an environment that favors IP
asset development by nationals
Industrial Policy in Denmark: Industrial
Property Rights, 2000
– Emphasizes need for faster and cheaper means
for protecting inventions, trademarks and
industrial designs, and
– For legal protection for intellectual property to
be developed along with technology and a
knowledge based economy;
– Calls on the Danish companies to be aware of
and exploit IP system;
– Promotes more reliable valuation methods;
7. The European Union Innovation Policy,
2000 and 2003
– The First Action Plan for Innovation in Europe:
Innovation for Growth And Employment
– Addresses need for R&D expenditure
8. Japan: Strategic Program for the
Creation, Protection and Exploitation of IP,
– Sets out the need to enhance GDP and export by
increasing enterprise revenues on IP-based exports
– Seeks to stimulate human capital development
– Plans to turn information and knowledge into
significant national wealth;
– Highly detailed and systematic.
The Underlying Features Of
the IP Strategies
• All are outcome of nationally coordinated and formulated
study or audit with inputs from major IP stakeholders;
• All stress creation, ownership, exploitation of IP assets;
• All focus on the value of investment in education and
R&D to compete and prosper in the current knowledgebased economy;
• All suggest need for technology ownership and local
development, as complement to technology transfer;
• All seek to facilitate innovation, technology transfer and
economic growth.