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23
Aggregate Demand and Aggregate
Supply
ESSENTIALS OF
ECONOMICS
FOURTH EDITION
N. G R E G O R Y M A N K I W
PowerPoint® Slides
by Ron Cronovich
© 2007 Thomson South-Western, all rights reserved
In this chapter, look for the answers to
these questions:
 What are economic fluctuations? What are their
characteristics?
 How does the model of aggregate demand and
aggregate supply explain economic fluctuations?
 Why does the Aggregate-Demand curve slope
downward? What shifts the AD curve?
 What is the slope of the Aggregate-Supply curve in
the short run? In the long run?
What shifts the AS curve(s)?
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
1
Introduction
 Over the long run, real GDP grows about
3% per year on average.
 In the short run, GDP fluctuates around its trend.
• recessions:
periods of falling real incomes
and rising unemployment
• depressions:
severe recessions (very rare)
 Short-run economic fluctuations are often called
business cycles.
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
2
Three Facts About Economic Fluctuations
FACT 1: Economic fluctuations are
irregular and unpredictable.
$ 11,000
U.S. real GDP,
billions of 2000 dollars
10,000
9,000
8,000
7,000
6,000
The shaded
bars are
recessions
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
Three Facts About Economic Fluctuations
FACT 2: Most macroeconomic
quantities fluctuate together.
$ 1,800
Investment spending,
billions of 2000 dollars
1,600
1,400
1,200
1,000
800
600
400
200
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
Three Facts About Economic Fluctuations
FACT 3: As output falls,
unemployment rises.
12
Unemployment rate,
percent of labor force
10
8
6
4
2
0
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
Introduction, continued
 Explaining these fluctuations is difficult, and the
theory of economic fluctuations is controversial.
 Most economists use the model of
aggregate demand and aggregate supply
to study fluctuations.
 This model differs from the classical economic
theories economists use to explain the long run.
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
6
Classical Economics—A Recap
 The previous chapters are based on the ideas of
classical economics, especially:
 The Classical Dichotomy, the separation of
variables into two groups:
• real – quantities, relative prices
• nominal – measured in terms of money
 The neutrality of money:
Changes in the money supply affect nominal but
not real variables.
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
7
Classical Economics—A Recap
 Most economists believe classical theory
describes the world in the long run,
but not the short run.
 In the short run, changes in nominal variables
(like the money supply or P ) can affect
real variables (like Y or the u-rate).
 To study the short run, we use a new model.
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
8
The Model of Aggregate Demand and
Aggregate Supply
P
The price
level
The model
determines the
eq’m price level
and the eq’m
level of output
(real GDP).
CHAPTER 23
SRAS
P1
“Aggregate
Demand”
“Short-Run
Aggregate
Supply”
AD
Y1
Y
Real GDP, the
quantity of output
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
9
The Aggregate-Demand (AD) Curve
P
The AD curve
shows the
quantity of
all g&s
demanded
in the economy
at any given
price level.
P2
P1
AD
Y2
CHAPTER 23
Y1
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
Y
10
Why the AD Curve Slopes Downward
Y = C + I + G + NX
C, I, G, NX are
the components
of agg. demand.
Assume G fixed
by govt policy.
To understand
the slope of AD,
must determine
how a change in P
affects C, I, and NX.
CHAPTER 23
P
P2
P1
AD
Y2
Y1
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
Y
11
The Wealth Effect (P and C )
 Suppose P rises.
 The dollars people hold buy fewer g&s,
so real wealth is lower.
 People feel poorer, so they spend less.
 Thus, an increase in P causes a fall in C
…which means a smaller quantity of g&s
demanded.
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
12
The Interest-Rate Effect (P and I )
 Suppose P rises.
 Buying g&s requires more dollars.
 To get these dollars, people sell some of their bonds
or other assets, which drives up interest rates.
…which increases the cost of borrowing to fund
investment projects.
 Thus, an increase in P causes a decrease in I
…which means a smaller quantity of g&s demanded.
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
13
The Exchange-Rate Effect (P and NX )
 Suppose P rises.
 Interest rates go up (the interest-rate effect).
 U.S. bonds more attractive relative to foreign bonds.
 Foreign investors purchase more U.S. bonds,
but first must convert their currency into $
…which appreciates the U.S. exchange rate.
 Makes U.S. exports more expensive to people
abroad, imports cheaper to U.S. residents.
 Thus, an increase in P causes a decrease in NX
…which means a smaller quantity of g&s
demanded.
14
The Slope of the AD Curve: Summary
An increase in P
reduces the quantity
of g&s demanded
because:
P
P2
• the wealth effect
(C falls)
• the interest-rate
P1
AD
effect (I falls)
• the exchange-rate
effect (NX falls)
CHAPTER 23
Y2
Y1
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
Y
15
Why the AD Curve Might Shift
Any event that changes
C, I, G, or NX
– except a change in P –
will shift the AD curve.
Example:
A stock market boom
makes households feel
wealthier, C rises,
the AD curve shifts right.
P
P1
AD2
AD1
Y1
CHAPTER 23
Y2
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
Y
16
AD Shifts Arising from Changes in C
 people decide to save more:
C falls, AD shifts left
 stock market crash:
C falls, AD shifts left
 tax cut:
C rises, AD shifts right
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
17
AD Shifts Arising from Changes in I
 Firms decide to upgrade their computers:
I rises, AD shifts right
 Firms become pessimistic about future demand:
I falls, AD shifts left
 Central bank uses monetary policy to reduce
interest rates:
I rises, AD shifts right
 Investment Tax Credit or other tax incentive:I
rises, AD shifts right
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
18
AD Shifts Arising from Changes in G
 Congress increases spending on homeland
security:
G rises, AD shifts right
 State govts cut spending on road construction:
G falls, AD shifts left
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
19
AD Shifts Arising from Changes in NX
 A boom overseas increases foreign demand for
our exports:
NX rises, AD shifts right
 International speculators cause exchange rate to
appreciate:
NX falls, AD shifts left
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
20
ACTIVE LEARNING
Exercise
1:
Try this without looking at your notes.
What happens to the AD curve in each of the
following scenarios?
A. A ten-year-old investment tax credit expires.
B. The U.S. exchange rate falls.
C. A fall in prices increases the real value of
consumers’ wealth.
D. State governments replace their sales taxes
with new taxes on interest, dividends, and
capital gains.
21
ACTIVE LEARNING
Answers
1:
A. A ten-year-old investment tax credit expires.
I falls, AD curve shifts left.
B. The U.S. exchange rate falls.
NX rises, AD curve shifts right.
C. A fall in prices increases the real value of
consumers’ wealth.
Move down along AD curve (wealth-effect).
D. State governments replace sales taxes with new
taxes on interest, dividends, and capital gains.
C rises, AD shifts right.
22
The Aggregate-Supply (AS) Curves
The AS curve shows
the total quantity of
g&s firms produce
and sell at any given
price level.
P
LRAS
SRAS
In the short run,
AS is
upward-sloping.
In the long run,
AS is vertical.
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
Y
23
The Long-Run Aggregate-Supply Curve (LRAS)
The natural rate of
output (YN) is the
amount of output
the economy produces
when unemployment
is at its natural rate.
YN is also called
potential output
or
full-employment
output.
CHAPTER 23
P
LRAS
YN
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
Y
24
Why LRAS Is Vertical
YN depends on the
economy’s stocks of
labor, capital, and
natural resources,
and on the level of
technology.
An increase in P
does not affect
any of these,
so it does not
affect YN.
(Classical dichotomy)
CHAPTER 23
P
LRAS
P2
P1
YN
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
Y
25
Why the LRAS Curve Might Shift
Any event that
changes any of the
determinants of YN
will shift LRAS.
P
LRAS1 LRAS2
Example:
Immigration
increases L,
causing YN to rise.
YN
CHAPTER 23
Y’
N
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
Y
26
LRAS Shifts Arising from Changes in L
 The Baby Boom generation retires:
L falls, LRAS shifts left
 New govt policies reduce the natural rate of
unemployment:
the % of the labor force normally employed
rises, LRAS shifts right
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
27
LRAS Shifts Arising from Changes in
Physical or Human Capital
 Investment in factories or equipment:
K rises, LRAS shifts right
 More people get college degrees:
Human capital rises, LRAS shifts right
 Earthquakes or hurricanes destroy factories:
K falls, LRAS shifts left
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
28
LRAS Shifts Arising from Changes in
Natural Resources
 A change in weather patterns makes farming
more difficult:
LRAS shifts left
 Discovery of new mineral deposits:
LRAS shifts right
 Reduction in supply of imported oil or other
resources:
LRAS shifts right
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
29
LRAS Shifts Arising from Changes in
Technology
 Technological advances allow more output to be
produced from a given bundle of inputs:
LRAS shifts right.
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
30
Using AD & AS to Depict LR Growth and
Inflation
Over the long run,
tech. progress shifts
LRAS to the right
and growth in the
money supply shifts
AD to the right.
Result:
ongoing inflation
and growth in
output.
CHAPTER 23
P
LRAS2000
LRAS1990
LRAS1980
P2000
P1990
AD2000
P1980
AD1990
AD1980
Y1980
Y1990
Y2000
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
Y
31
Short Run Aggregate Supply (SRAS)
P
The SRAS curve
is upward sloping:
Over the period
of 1-2 years,
an increase in P
causes an
increase in the
quantity of g & s
supplied.
SRAS
P2
P1
Y1
CHAPTER 23
Y2
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
Y
32
Why the Slope of SRAS Matters
If AS is vertical,
fluctuations in AD
do not cause
fluctuations in output
or employment.
If AS slopes up,
then shifts in AD
do affect output
and employment.
CHAPTER 23
LRAS
P
Phi
SRAS
Phi
ADhi
Plo
AD1
Plo
ADlo
Ylo
Y1
Yhi
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
Y
33
Three Theories of SRAS
In each,
• some type of market imperfection
• result:
Output deviates from its natural rate
when the actual price level deviates
from the price level people expected.
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
34
Three Theories of SRAS
P
SRAS
When P > PE
the expected
price level
PE
When P < PE
Y
YN
Y < YN
CHAPTER 23
Y > YN
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
35
1. The Sticky-Wage Theory
 Imperfection:
Nominal wages are sticky in the short run,
they adjust sluggishly.
• Due to labor contracts, social norms.
 Firms and workers set the nominal wage in
advance based on PE, the price level they
expect to prevail.
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
36
1. The Sticky-Wage Theory
 If P > PE,
revenue is higher, but labor cost is not.
Production is more profitable,
so firms increase output and employment.
 Hence, higher P causes higher Y,
so the SRAS curve slopes upward.
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
37
2. The Sticky-Price Theory
 Imperfection:
Many prices are sticky in the short run.
• Due to menu costs, the costs of adjusting
prices.
• Examples: cost of printing new menus,
the time required to change price tags.
 Firms set sticky prices in advance based
on PE.
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
38
2. The Sticky-Price Theory
 Suppose the Fed increases the money supply
unexpectedly. In the long run, P will rise.
 In the short run, firms without menu costs can
raise their prices immediately.
 Firms with menu costs wait to raise prices.
Meantime, their prices are relatively low,
which increases demand for their products,
so they increase output and employment.
 Hence, higher P is associated with higher Y,
so the SRAS curve slopes upward.
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
39
3. The Misperceptions Theory
 Imperfection:
Firms may confuse changes in P with changes
in the relative price of the products they sell.
 If P rises above PE, a firm sees its price rise
before realizing all prices are rising.
The firm may believe its relative price is rising,
and may increase output and employment.
 So, an increase in P can cause an increase in Y,
making the SRAS curve upward-sloping.
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
40
What the 3 Theories Have in Common:
Each of the 3 theories implies Y deviates from YN
when P deviates from PE.
Y = YN + a (P – PE)
Output
Natural rate
of output
(long-run)
CHAPTER 23
Expected
price level
a > 0,
measures
how much Y
responds to
unexpected
changes in P
Actual
price level
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
41
SRAS and LRAS
 The imperfections in these theories are
temporary. Over time,
• sticky wages and prices become flexible
• misperceptions are corrected
 In the LR,
• PE = P
• AS curve is vertical
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
42
SRAS
and LRAS
Y = YN + a(P – PE)
P
LRAS
In the long run,
PE = P
and
Y = YN.
SRAS
PE
YN
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
Y
43
Why the SRAS Curve Might Shift
Everything that shifts
LRAS shifts SRAS, too.
P
Also, PE shifts SRAS:
If PE rises,
workers & firms set
higher wages.
At each P,
production is less
profitable, Y falls,
SRAS shifts left.
CHAPTER 23
LRAS
SRAS
SRAS
PE
PE
YN
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
Y
44
The Long-Run Equilibrium
In the long-run
equilibrium,
P
LRAS
SRAS
PE = P,
Y = YN ,
and unemployment
is at its natural rate.
PE
AD
YN
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
Y
45
Economic Fluctuations
 Caused by events that shift the AD and/or
AS curves.
 Four steps to analyzing economic fluctuations:
1. Determine whether the event shifts AD or AS.
2. Determine whether curve shifts left or right.
3. Use AD-AS diagram to see how the shift
changes Y and P in the short run.
4. Use AD-AS diagram to see how economy
moves from new SR eq’m to new LR eq’m.
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
46
The Effects of a Shift in AD
Event: stock market crash
P
1. affects C, AD curve
LRAS
2. C falls, so AD shifts left
3. SR eq’m at B.
P and Y lower,
unemp higher
4. Over time, PE falls,
SRAS shifts right,
until LR eq’m at C.
Y and unemp back
at initial levels.
CHAPTER 23
SRAS1
A
P1
P2
SRAS2
B
P3
AD1
C
AD2
Y2
YN
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
Y
47
Two Big AD Shifts:
1. The Great Depression
U.S. Real GDP,
billions of 2000 dollars
From 1929-1933,
CHAPTER 23
700
650
600
550
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
1934
unemp rose
from 3% to 25%
750
1933
P fell 22%
800
1932
Y fell 27%
850
1931
•
•
•
stock prices fell 90%,
reducing C and I
900
1930
•
money supply fell
28% due to problems
in banking system
1929
•
48
Two Big AD Shifts:
2. The World War II Boom
2,000
Y rose 90%
1,400
P rose 20%
1,200
unemp fell
from 17% to 1%
1,000
1,800
1,600
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
1944
1943
1942
800
1939
•
•
•
govt outlays rose
from $9.1 billion
to $91.3 billion
1941
•
U.S. Real GDP,
billions of 2000 dollars
1940
From 1939-1944,
49
ACTIVE LEARNING
Exercise
2:
 Draw the AD-SRAS-LRAS diagram
for the U.S. economy,
starting in a long-run equilibrium.
 A boom occurs in Canada.
Use your diagram to determine
the SR and LR effects on U.S. GDP,
the price level, and unemployment.
50
ACTIVE LEARNING
Answers
2:
Event: boom in Canada
P
1. affects NX, AD curve
LRAS
SRAS2
2. shifts AD right
3. SR eq’m at point B.
P and Y higher,
unemp lower
P3
4. Over time, PE rises,
SRAS shifts left,
until LR eq’m at C.
Y and unemp back
at initial levels.
P1
C
SRAS1
B
P2
A
AD2
AD1
YN
Y2
Y
51
The Effects of a Shift in SRAS
Event: oil prices rise
1. increases costs,
P
shifts SRAS
(assume LRAS constant)
2. SRAS shifts left
3. SR eq’m at point B.
P2
P higher, Y lower,
unemp higher
P1
From A to B,
stagflation,
a period of
falling output
and rising prices.
CHAPTER 23
LRAS
SRAS2
SRAS1
B
A
AD1
Y2 YN
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
Y
52
Accommodating an Adverse Shift in SRAS
If policymakers do nothing,
4. Low employment
causes wages to fall,
SRAS shifts right,
until LR eq’m at A.
Or, policymakers could
use fiscal or monetary
policy to increase AD
and accommodate the
AS shift:
Y back to YN, but
P permanently higher.
CHAPTER 23
P
LRAS
SRAS2
P3
P2
P1
C
B
A
SRAS1
AD2
AD1
Y2 YN
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
Y
53
The 1970s Oil Shocks and Their Effects
1973-75
1978-80
Real oil prices
+ 138%
+ 99%
CPI
+ 21%
+ 26%
Real GDP
– 0.7%
+ 2.9%
# of unemployed
persons
+ 3.5
million
+ 1.4
million
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
54
John Maynard Keynes, 1883-1946
•
The General Theory of Employment,
Interest, and Money, 1936
•
Argued recessions and depressions
can result from inadequate demand;
policymakers should shift AD.
•
Famous critique of classical theory:
The long run is a misleading guide
to current affairs. In the long run,
we are all dead. Economists set themselves
too easy, too useless a task if in tempestuous seasons
they can only tell us when the storm is long past,
the ocean will be flat.
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
55
CONCLUSION
 This chapter has introduced the model of
aggregate demand and aggregate supply,
which helps explain economic fluctuations.
 Keep in mind: these fluctuations are deviations
from the long-run trends explained by the
models we learned in previous chapters.
 In the next chapter, we will learn how
policymakers can affect aggregate demand
with fiscal and monetary policy.
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
56
CHAPTER SUMMARY
 Short-run fluctuations in GDP and other
macroeconomic quantities are irregular and
unpredictable. Recessions are periods of falling
real GDP and rising unemployment.
 Economists analyze fluctuations using the model
of aggregate demand and aggregate supply.
 The aggregate demand curve slopes downward
because a change in the price level has a wealth
effect on consumption, an interest-rate effect on
investment, and an exchange-rate effect on net
exports.
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
57
CHAPTER SUMMARY
 Anything that changes C, I, G, or NX
– except a change in the price level –
will shift the aggregate demand curve.
 The long-run aggregate supply curve is vertical,
because changes in the price level do not affect
output in the long run.
 In the long run, output is determined by labor,
capital, natural resources, and technology;
changes in any of these will shift the
long-run aggregate supply curve.
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
58
CHAPTER SUMMARY
 In the short run, output deviates from its natural
rate when the price level is different than
expected, leading to an upward-sloping short-run
aggregate supply curve. The three theories
proposed to explain this upward slope are the
sticky wage theory, the sticky price theory, and the
misperceptions theory.
 The short-run aggregate-supply curve shifts in
response to changes in the expected price level
and to anything that shifts the long-run aggregate
supply curve.
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
59
CHAPTER SUMMARY
 Economic fluctuations are caused by shifts in
aggregate demand and aggregate supply.
 When aggregate demand falls, output and the
price level fall in the short run. Over time, a
change in expectations causes wages, prices, and
perceptions to adjust, and the short-run aggregate
supply curve shifts rightward. In the long run, the
economy returns to the natural rates of output and
unemployment, but with a lower price level.
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
60
CHAPTER SUMMARY
 A fall in aggregate supply results in stagflation –
falling output and rising prices.
Wages, prices, and perceptions adjust over time,
and the economy recovers.
CHAPTER 23
AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY
61