Turkey between Europe and the Middle East

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Transcript Turkey between Europe and the Middle East

ENLARGEMENT OF THE
EUROPEAN UNION
The Founding Members
• European Coal and Steel Community
– Proposed by Schuman for peace in 1950
– Formally established in 1951 by Treaty of Paris
– France, W. Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, The
Netherlands, Italy
• Went on to sign Treaties of Rome
– ECSC
– EURATOM
– EEC
• Came to be known as EC
• EFTA (Outer seven): Austria, Denmark,
Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland and
the United Kingdom
• UK changed policy on joining on EC
– Issued for accession in 1961
– “Non” to the UK accession by French President de
Gaulle (1963 and 1967)
• Due to fear of US influence
1973 - First Enlargement
• Accession of UK, Denmark, Ireland, Norway
• UK
– French President de Gaulle no longer in office so
UK no longer has barriers for entry
– Colonies – the question of Gibraltar
• Norway
– Question put to referendum – rejected
– Still adopts policies – Schengen, Europol etc
– Contributes to budget, member of EEA
1981 and 1986
Mediterranean Enlargements
 Democracy returns to Greece, Spain and
Portugal
 Greece joins in 1981
 Spain and Portugal in 1986
 1985 – Greenland leaves the EC
 1987 – Turkey and Morocco apply
 Morocco not seen as European
 Turkey’s accepted, only received candidate status
in 2000, negotiations started in 2004
1981 and 1986
Mediterranean Enlargements
• With the accession of the countries in 1981
and 1986:
– Population increased by 10%
– The area of the EU members increased by 20%
– The total GDP of the member states increased by
6.8%
– But the GDP per capita fell by 3.42%
Fourth Enlargement - EU-15
• Prior to enlargement of 1995, East+West
Germany reunified in 1990
– East Germany part of EC, under “Germany”
• EC becomes EU in 1993 - Maastricht
• Accession of Austria, Finland, Sweden
• Copenhagen criteria established due to
candidacy of numerous post-communist
countries
– Democracy / free market / adoption of EU Law
Fourth Enlargement - EU-15
• With the accession of the countries in 1995:
– Population increased by 6%
– The area of the EU members increased by 35%
– The total GDP of the member states increased by
6.5%
– For the first and only time in any enlargement of
the EC/EU, the GDP per capita increased, by 0.20%
2004: The Big Bang
• In 2004, 10 Eastern, mostly post communist,
countries joined the EU
– Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia,
Luthuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia.
– Less developed states were fear of Western, more
developed members
• Restrictions of certain members on travel/working
rights of eastern people in their countries
• Denmark, Finland, Austria
The Fifth Enlargement
 With the accession of the countries in 2004:
 Population increased by 20%, largest single expansion
in terms of number of people
 The area of the EU members increased by 18%, largest
single increase in terms of km2
 The total GDP of the member states increased only by
8.8%
 It was the largest fall of GDP per capita in any
enlargement. The accession of the less developed
Eastern countries caused a 9% fall in GDP per capita
Sixth Enlargement - 2007
 The accession of Bulgaria and Romania
 Were supposed to join in 2004
 Romania
 Government and judiciary reforms not completed
 Bulgaria
 More efforts needed in fight against corruption, human
trafficking and reforming judicial sector
Sixth Enlargement - 2007
• With the accession of the countries in 2007:
– Population increased by 6.5%
– The area of the EU members increased by 8.5%
– The total GDP of the member states increased by
2%
– GDP per capita fell by 4%
• Eastern enlargement of 2004-2007 ended the
conventional view “Europe ended where the
Iron Curtain divided it”
2013: Croatia
• After Slovenia, Croatia is the second country
from ex-Yugoslavia to join the EU.
• The European perspective remains open to
the entire Western Balkans region.
Future Enlargement of the EU
• Western Balkans, Turkey and Iceland
• Two concepts after the Eastern enlargement:
– ‘absorption capacity’
– ‘enlargement fatigue’
Candidate and potential candidate countries
Wealth
Area
Population
(million)
(gross domestic product
per person)
Bosnia and Herzegovina
51
3.8
7 300
Montenegro
13
0.6
10 500
100
0.3
29 500
Kosovo under UN Security
Resolution 1244
11
2.2
:
The former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia
25
2.1
9 200
Albania
27
3.2
7 300
Serbia
77
7.3
8 400
Turkey
770
73.7
13 600
4 290
508
25 700
(1000 km²)
Iceland
The 28 EU countries
together
State
Status
Association
Agreement
Membership
Application
Candidate
status
Negotiations
start
Screening
completed
Acquis Chapters
open/closed
Albania
Candidate
2009-04-01
(SAA)
2009-04-28
2014-06-24
–
–
–
Bosnia and
Herzegovina
Potential
candidate
Signed (SAA)
–
–
–
–
–
Iceland
Negotiations
suspended
1994-01-01
(EEA)
2009-07-16
2010-06-17
2010-07-27
2011-06-21
27/11
Kosovo
Potential
candidate
Initialled
(SAA)
–
–
–
–
–
Macedonia
Candidate
2004-04-01
(SAA)
2004-03-22
2005-12-17
–
–
–
Montenegro
Negotiating
2010-05-01
(SAA)
2008-12-15
2010-12-17
2012-06-29
2013-06-27
12/2
Serbia
Negotiating
2013-09-01
(SAA)
2009-12-22
2012-03-01
2014-01-21
(Started)
–
Turkey
Negotiating
1964-12-01
(AA)
1987-04-14
1999-12-12
2005-10-03
2006-10-13
14/1
Why Enlargement?
• According to the 2014 Strategy Paper:
– makes Europe a safer place
– helps improve the quality of people’s lives
– makes EU more prosperous
• three pillars:
– rule of law
– economic governance
– public administration reform.
Steps towards joining
• When a country is ready it becomes an
official candidate for membership
• The candidate moves on to formal
membership negotiations following
unanimous decision by the EU Council
• When the negotiations and accompanying
reforms have been completed to the
satisfaction of both sides, the country can join
the EU
Steps towards joining
• The conditions and timing of the candidate's
adoption, implementation and enforcement of
all current EU rules (the "acquis
communautaire").
• 35 chapters negotiated separately
• financial arrangements
• transitional arrangements
Chapters of the acquis
Chapter 1: Free movement of goods
Chapter 2: Freedom of movement for workers
Chapter 3: Right of establishment and freedom to provide services
Chapter 4: Free movement of capital
Chapter 5: Public procurement
Chapter 6: Company law
Chapter 7: Intellectual property law
Chapter 8: Competition policy
Chapter 9: Financial services
Chapter 10: Information society and media
Chapter 11: Agriculture and rural development
Chapter 12: Food safety, veterinary and phytosanitary policy
Chapter 13: Fisheries
Chapters of the acquis
Chapter 14: Transport policy
Chapter 15: Energy
Chapter 16: Taxation
Chapter 17: Economic and monetary policy
Chapter 18: Statistics
Chapter 19: Social policy and employment
Chapter 20: Enterprise and industrial policy
Chapter 21: Trans-European networks
Chapter 22: Regional policy and coordination of structural instruments
Chapter 23: Judiciary and fundamental rights
Chapter 24: Justice, freedom and security
Chapter 25: Science and research
Chapter 26: Education and culture
Chapters of the acquis
Chapter 27: Environment
Chapter 28: Consumer and health protection
Chapter 29: Customs union
Chapter 30: External relations
Chapter 31: Foreign, security and defence policy
Chapter 32: Financial control
Chapter 33: Financial and budgetary provisions
Chapter 34 - Institutions
Chapter 35 - Other issues
Screening
• Commission carries out a detailed
examination, together with the candidate
country, of each chapter.
• The findings by chapter are presented by the
Commission to the Member States in the form
of a screening report.
• open negotiations directly or require that
certain conditions – opening benchmarks should first be met
Negotiating positions
• before negotiations can start, the candidate
country must submit its position and the EU
must adopt a common position
• EU sets closing benchmarks in chapters which
need to be met by the Candidate Country
before negotiations in the policy field
concerned can be closed.
• If criteria fulfilled, chapter “provisionally
closed”
Concluding the negotiations
• Closing the chapters
– No negotiations on any individual chapter are
closed until every EU government is satisfied with
the candidate's progress in that policy field
– whole negotiation process is only concluded
definitively once every chapter has been closed.
Accession treaty
• the document that cements the country's
membership of the EU
• To be binding, it has to;
– win the support of the EU Council, the Commission,
and the European Parliament
– be signed by the candidate country and
representatives of all existing EU countries
– be ratified by the candidate country and every
individual EU country, according to their constitutional
rules (parliamentary vote, referendum, etc.).
Enlargement to the Western Balkans
Importance of Western Balkans
Enlargement
• Security: disputes on territories, sovereignty
and ethnic minorities still persist in the region
• Credibility of the EU as an international actor
• “use the power of its enlargement process to
transform the Western Balkans, opening a
new chapter after a shameful decade of failure
in the region”
Integration Process
• Stabilisation and Association Process (SAP) policy
framework in 1999
• Stabilisation and Association Agreements (SAA)
with Croatia, Macedonia (2000), Albania (2003),
Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro, Serbia (2005),
Kosovo (2013)
• Thessaloniki Summit (2003): a clear membership
perspective granted to the Western Balkans,
subject to fulfilment of the conditions
determined by the SAP and the Copenhagen
criteria
Progress so far
• Croatia met all conditions and become a member of
the EU on 1 July 2013.
• Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia recognised as
candidate countries, where the formal accession
negotiations started with Montenegro in June 2012
and with Serbia in January 2014.
• Albania applied for EU membership in 2009, and in
October 2012 the European Commission
recommended that Council should grant Albania
candidate status. Granted candidate status in June
2014
• Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo has not applied for
membership yet, but the EU recognises these countries
as potential candidates.
Financial Assistance Instruments for the Western
Balkans
• PHARE, ECHO (1990)
• Obnova (1996)
• CARDS (2000)
• IPA (2007)
• IPA II (2014)
PHARE, ECHO, Obnova
• Poland and Hungary Assistance for
Restructuring their Economies
(PHARE) programme (1990)
– initially targeting assistance to Poland and
Hungary,
– expanded to the pre-accession assistance of the
2004 and 2007 entrant countries and three
countries from the Western Balkans, Albania,
Macedonia, and Bosnia-Herzegovina
PHARE, ECHO, Obnova
• European Consensus on Humanitarian Aid (ECHO)
(1990)
– included support to refugees, internally displaced
persons and vulnerable groups and aimed at restoring
livelihood conditions and fostering post-war
infrastructure reconstruction.
• Obnova (reconstruction) (1996)
• In the 1990s, around €4.4 billion was allocated to
the projects aiming at the physical, social and
political reconstruction of the Western Balkans.
CARDS (2000)
• PHARE, ECHO and Obnova were limited to
post-conflict reconstruction of the region.
• Community Assistance for Reconstruction,
Development and Stabilisation (CARDS)
programme
– “building up an institutional, legislative, economic
and social framework directed at the values and
models subscribed to by the EU”
CARDS (2000)
• Financial assistance (€4.6 billion in total)
concentrated at a wide range of issues
– integrated border management,
– public administration reform,
– taxation,
– local infrastructure development,
– civil society development,
– media reform,
– strengthened environment policies and
– economic reforms.
CARDS Programme allocation for 2002–2006
(EUR million)
2002
2003 2004
2005 2006
Albania
44.9
46.5
63.5
44.2
45.5
Bosnia-Herzegovina
71.9
63
72
49.4
51
59
62
81
105
140
41.5
43.5
59
45
40
189.7
240
218 154.5
179
15
15
19
22
24.5
154.9 76.28
75.4
54
89.5
Croatia
Macedonia
Serbia
Montenegro
Kosovo
Source: European Commission, DG Enlargement. Financial statistics per country 2000-2006
IPA (2007)
• Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA)
programme
– Replaced all previous instruments for both official
candidate (Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro,
Turkey, and Iceland) and potential candidate
countries (Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia
and Kosovo)
– Aims at providing assistance to these countries in
harmonization and implementation of the EU
acquis and preparation for use of the cohesion
and structural funds after EU accession.
COMPONENTS OF IPA
• Component I: “Assistance for transition and
institution-building”
• Component II: “Cross-border cooperation”
• Component III: “Regional development”
• Component IV: “Human resources
development”
• Component V: “Rural development”
Allocation of IPA Funds
• allocation of the IPA funds for each
component and beneficiary country was
defined in the Multiannual Indicative Financial
Framework (MIFF), which reflects the
priorities identified by the Enlargement
Strategy of the European Commission
• First MIFF: 2008-2010
• Second MIFF: 2011-2013
Breakdown of the IPA Assistance (MIFF 1)
Country
Component
Transition Assistance and Institution
Building
Cross-border Cooperation
Regional Development
Human Resources Development
Rural Development
Total
2007
2008
2009
2010
256.7
2.1
167.5
50.2
20.7
497.2
256.1
2.8
173.8
52.9
53
538.7
239.6
3.1
182.7
55.6
85.5
566.4
231.3
5.1
238.1
63.4
131.3
653.7
CROATIA
Transition Assistance and Institution
Building
Cross-border Cooperation
Regional Development
Human Resources Development
Rural Development
Total
49.6
9.7
45.1
11.4
25.5
141.2
45.4
14.7
47.6
12.7
25.6
146
45.6
15.9
49.7
14.2
25.8
151.2
39.5
15.6
56.2
15.7
26
153.6
MACEDONIA
Transition Assistance and Institution
Building
Cross-border Cooperation
Regional Development
Human Resources Development
Rural Development
Total
41.6
4.2
7.4
3.2
2.1
58.5
41.1
4.1
12.3
6
6.7
70.2
39.3
4.3
20.8
7.1
10.2
81.8
36.9
4.5
29.4
8.4
12.5
91.7
TURKEY
Breakdown of the IPA Assistance (MIFF 1)
SERBIA
Transition Assistance and Institution Building
Cross-border Cooperation
Total
181.5
8.2
189.7
179.4
11.5
190.9
182.6
12.2
194.8
186.2
11.8
198
MONTENEGRO
Transition Assistance and Institution Building
Cross-border Cooperation
Total
27.5
3.9
31.4
28.1
4.5
32.6
29.8
4.7
34.5
29.8
3.7
33.5
KOSOVO
Transition Assistance and Institution Building
Cross-border Cooperation
Total
68.3
0
68.3
184.7
0
184.7
106.1
0
106.1
66.1
1.2
67.3
Transition Assistance and Institution Building
Cross-border Cooperation
Total
58.1
4
62.1
69.9
4.9
74.8
83.9
5.2
89.1
100.7
4.7
105.4
Transition Assistance and Institution Building
Cross-border Cooperation
Total
54.3
6.7
61
65.2
8.6
73.8
71.4
9.8
81.2
84.2
10
94.2
1109.4
29.6
44.8
1263.2
1311.7
137.7
52
1501.4
1305.1
188.9
47.6
1541.6
1397.3
141.7
47.4
1591.3
BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA
ALBANIA
Total Country Programmes
Multi-Beneficiary Programmes
Support Expenditure
GRAND TOTAL
Breakdown of the IPA Assistance (MIFF 2)
Country
Component
Transition Assistance and Institution
Building
TURKEY
Cross-border Cooperation
Regional Development
231.3 227.5 238.5
5.1 2.2 2.2
293.4 356.1 366.9
Human Resources Development
Rural Development
Total
77.6 83.2 91.2 MONTENEGRO
172.5 187.4 204.2
779.9 856.3 902.9
Transition Assistance and Institution
Building
Cross-border Cooperation
Regional Development
CROATIA
2011 2012 2013
Human Resources Development
Rural Development
Total
Transition Assistance and Institution
Building
Cross-border Cooperation
Regional Development
Human Resources Development
Rural Development
MACEDONIA Total
40
40 17.4
KOSOVO
15.9 16.4 9.7
58.2 57.5 30.1
16 15.9 8.5
26.5 25.8 27.7 BOSNIA156.5 155.6 93.5 HERZEGOVINA
29.4 28.7 27.1
4.5 3.6 5.1
39.3 40.9 50.3 ALBANIA
Transition Assistance and
Institution Building
29.8
16.3
5.1
Cross-border Cooperation
4.3
4.6
4.7
Regional Development
0
8
14.8
Human Resources Development
0
2.8
2.8
Rural Development
0
3.3
7.3
Total
34.2
35
34.6
Transition Assistance and
Institution Building
66.9
67
68.5
Cross-border Cooperation
1.8
1.8
3
68.7
68.8
71.5
Total
Transition Assistance and
Institution Building
102.7
Cross-border Cooperation
4.7
Total
SERBIA
Cross-border Cooperation
Total
5.3
107.9 108.8
84.3
85.1
84.7
Cross-border Cooperation
10.1
9.4
10.7
Total
94.4
94.6
95.3
8.8 10.3 10.6
16
18 20.2 Total Country Programmes
98 101.5 113.2 Multi-Beneficiary Programmes
190.6 190.6 196.7
GRAND TOTAL
11.3 11.5 11.6
201.9 202.1 208.3
5.2
Transition Assistance and
Institution Building
Support Expenditure
Transition Assistance and Institution
Building
107.4
102.7 103.5
1553
1633.7 1634.1
193.2
212.7 177.3
52.2
1798.4
52.7
53.3
1899.1 1864.6
IPA Allocations to the Western Balkans
Per capita IPA Allocations to the Western Balkans and Turkey
From IPA to IPA II: 2014 - 2020
• IPA II: “more closely linked to the enlargement
priorities, and based on a more results-oriented
and strategic approach targeting key reforms in
the enlargement countries”
– access to all areas of the IPA II for all countries,
regardless their official candidate status;
– Easy management of financial assistance with fewer
processes for accreditation and conferral of
management to beneficiaries.
– Generalisation of a sector approach with the
increased use of sectoral budget support
IPA II Budget
(provisional allocation) (EUR millions)
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
1573.8 1605.2 1637.4 1670.1 1703.5 1737.6 1771.1