The Development of Education in Korea

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Transcript The Development of Education in Korea

Contents
Ⅰ. Introduction
Ⅱ. Development Stages of Korean Education
Ⅲ. The Expansion of Educational Opportunities
and Approaches
Ⅳ. How Education contributes to Economic
growth?
Ⅴ. Relevance of TVE at Upper Secondary
education
2
Ⅰ. Introduction
 Purposes
– Identify Korean approaches to Expanding Access
to Education and education’s contribution to the
successful economic growth in Korea
– Overview Korean experiences with Technical and
Vocational Education (TVE): Relevance of TVE and
Emerging Challenges to TVE
– Highlight key lessons learned from Korean
Experiences to the Three policy questions
3
Ⅱ. Development Stages of Korean Education
Four stages:
1) Economical Development Phases
- 1945~1960 : Economic disruption and recovery
- 1961~1979 : Export-oriented, high growth strategy under
the Park’s regime
- 1980~1997 : Structural adjustment and stabilized growth
- 1998~Present : Transition into knowledge-based society
2) Stages of Educational Development
- 1948~1960 : Educational reconstruction
- 1961~1980 : Educational Expansion and Economic Growth
- 1981~1997 : Exploration for the Qualitative Improvement
of Education
- 1998~Present :Restructuring Period
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Ⅱ. Development Stages of Korean Education
Modern Korean education begins in 1945
 The situation since 1945
– Korea was liberated from Japanese colonial rule with the end of
the World War Ⅱ
– Divided into two countries: South and North Korea
– US Army’s “Military Government” in South Korea(1945-1948)
– Republic of Korea was founded in 1948:
Ideological struggle and political instability
- Korean War(1950-1953): 80% school buildings destroyed
- Shortage of everything except students (P.H. Cooms)
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Ⅱ. Development Stages of Korean Education

Major Economic Indicators
Population
(1000
persons)
Employees
(1000
persons)
GDP
(billion won)
Per Capita
GDP($)
Exports
( billion $)
1945
25,120
-
-
-
-
1960
24,989
-
243
80.0
-
1970
31,435
9,617
2,764
257.6
0.84
1980
37,407
13,683
38,775
1,705.6
17.5
1990
43,390
18,085
186,691
6,077.4
65.0
2000
45,985
21,156
578,665
11,129.6
172.3
2005
47,279
22,856
806,622
16,656.4
284.4
* Population of 1945 is 1944’s. data.
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Ⅱ. Development Stages of Korean Education
Social, Economic index of The Economic Growth Period
Industrial Origin of GDP(%)
City Population
Rate to Total(%)
Per
Capita
GNP($)
Mining &
Agriculture
Manufacturing,
Electricity,
Construction
Services
1961
28.0(1960)
82
48.8
12.3
38.9
1965
-
105
44.5
16.4
39.1
1970
41.1
254
32.4
27.1
40.5
1975
48.4
602
26.4
32.1
41.1
1979
57.2
1,676
16.2
40.1
44.1
Source: National Statistical Office (http://www.nso.go.kr)
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Ⅲ. The Expansion of Educational Opportunities
and Approaches
Net Changes in No. Students
(Unit: 1,000 Persons)
Elementary
School
Middle
School
High
School
Tertiary
Total
1945
~1960
+2,247
+449
-
+96
+3,067
1960
~1980
+2,037
+1,943
+1,424
+501
+5,915
1980
~2000
-1,638
-611
+374
+2,762
+647
2000
~2005
+3
+150
-308
+185
-80
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Ⅲ. The Expansion of Educational Opportunities
and Approaches
N' of students
12,000,000
<Figure 1> C hanges of The Number of Students
Elementary Education
Expansion Period of
Completed
Secondary Education
10,000,000
Expansion Period of
Tertiary Education
8,000,000
6,000,000
4,000,000
2,000,000
0
1948 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Elementary
Middle
High
Tertiary
Total
year
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Ⅲ. The Expansion of Educational Opportunities
and Approaches
No. of Students
12,000,000
Educational Expansion
10,000,000
Restructuring
Period
Quality
Improvement
8,000,000
6,000,000
4,000,000
2,000,000
0
1948 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030
Elementary
Middle
10
High
Tertiary
Total
Year
Ⅲ. The Expansion of Educational Opportunities
and Approaches
 Development Approach to Korean Education :
Major Policies
– Six-year Compulsory Education plan (1954-1959)
– Open Door Policy to Secondary Education


Abolition of Entrance Exam to Middle School (1968)
High School Equalization Policy (1974)
– Open Door Policy to Higher Education

July 30 Educational Reform (1980)
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Ⅲ. The Expansion of Educational Opportunities
and Approaches
 Low Cost Approach (LCA)
– Lowering educational standards (Large class, Double
shift classroom, Low level of teacher’s salary) to
accommodate more students given resources
Constraints
– Application of LCA:
- Expanding Primary compulsory education
(1954-1959)
- Expanding Lower Secondary Education(1968)
- Expanding Access to Tertiary Education (1980)
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Ⅲ. The Expansion of Educational Opportunities
and Approaches
Six-year compulsory education plan(1954-1959)
 Outcome
– Universalization of primary education
year
1951
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
Enrollment Rate 69.8
82.5
89.5
89.9
91.1
92.5
96.4
 Emerging Problem
– Successive strong educational demand for middle
school resulting in the ‘exam hell’ in elementary
school to prepare entrance examination to selective
middle schools
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Ⅲ. The Expansion of Educational Opportunities
and Approaches
 Egalitarian approach
: Achieving minimum level of uniform equality
(“Go Together” approach)
- Abolition of Entrance Exam to Lower and Upper Secondary
Education and admission by “assignment system” in 1968
and 1974
- Providing Equal chance of being admitted to Middle school
and High school
- Lowering educational standards: class size from 60 to 70
- Providing Equal school conditions
- Gradual extension of free compulsory education to middle
school from rural areas in 1984 to all area in 2004
- Priority given to “Region, Low SES, Students at Risk”
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Ⅲ. The Expansion of Educational Opportunities
and Approaches
Quantitative expansion of Secondary Education
 School Enrollment Rate:
Primary
School
Middle
School
High
School
Tertiary
1951
69.8
-
-
-
1960
95.3
32.2
20.0
6.4
1970
97.0
53.3
29.3
9.2
1980
97.7
73.3
48.8
11.1
1990
100.5
91.6
79.4
22.9
2000
97.2
95.0
89.4
50.2
2004
97.7
91.9
90.1
61.7
Source: KEDI, Statistical Yearbook of Education 2004
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Ⅲ. The Expansion of Educational Opportunities
and Approaches
Qualitative Improvement of Education by School Level
Elementary
Middle
High
Students
Per
Class
Students
Per
Teacher
Students
Per
Class
Students
Per
Teacher
Students
Per
Class
Students
Per
Teacher
1962
62.9
60.0
60.1
40.5
55.8
27.3
1965
65.4
62.4
60.7
39.4
57.0
30.2
1970
62.1
56.9
62.1
42.3
58.1
29.7
1975
56.7
51.8
64.5
43.2
58.6
31.4
1980
51.5
47.5
65.6
45.1
59.4
32.8
1985
44.7
38.3
61.7
40.0
56.9
30.9
1990
41.4
35.6
50.2
25.4
52.8
24.6
1995
36.4
28.2
48.2
24.8
47.9
21.7
2000
35.8
28.7
38.0
20.1
42.5
19.8
2005
31.8
25.1
35.3
19.3
31.0
15.1
Source : The Statistical Yearbook of Korean Education.
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Ⅲ. The Expansion of Educational Opportunities
and Approaches

Years of achieving Universal Enrollment
(Enrollment Rate 90%, Entering Rate to Upper Education 90%)
Enrollment Ratio
90% year
Entering upper class ratio
90% year
Elementary
1957
Middle
1990
Ele- > Middle
1979
High
1999
Middle > High
1985
Tertiary(a)
2005
High > Ter-(a)
1997
Tertiary(b)
2000
High > Ter-(b)
1995
* Tertiary(a), High > Tertiary(a) : Enrollment/Entering upper class ratio 60%.
Tertiary(b), High > Tertiary(b) : Enrollment/Entering upper class ratio 50%.
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Ⅲ. The Expansion of Educational Opportunities
and Approaches
 Key factors contributing to Expansion of
Access to Education
- Universal enrollment of Elementary Education
- Low cost approach
- Egalitarian approach
- Sequential expansion with Bottom-Up approach
- Gov’t budget support for Elementary-Secondary
Education by Law (12.98% of Domestic tax)
- Parent’s strong support to Education
- High level of Economic growth
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Ⅲ. The Expansion of Educational Opportunities
and Approaches
Quantitative expansion of Secondary Education
 Distribution of Educational Attainment of Population
over 25 years old(%)
year
1970
1980
1990
2000
Primary Graduate and Below
73
55
33
23
Middle School Graduate
12
18
19
13
High School Graduate
10
19
34
40
Jr College Graduate
1
1
2
8
University Graduate and over
4
7
12
16
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Ⅳ. How education contributes to economic growth?
 Cooperative Correspondence relation
between economy and education:
- Developing Infra-Structure of Human Resource
- High economic growth to support educational
expansion
 Korean education developed infrastructure
of human capacity and significantly
contributed to economic take-off in 1960's
 Human Resource Development in advanced
to the manpower requirement
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Ⅳ. How education contributes to economic growth?
How education contributes to economic growth?
 Development of Pre-condition to economic growth
 Harbison & Myers's observation of Korean case of
Human Resources development for a country with per
capita GNP $380, when its per capita GNP was $ 107.
Enrollment rate
of
Secondary
Education
KOREA
Low Cost Approach
$ 107
$ 380
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Per Capita GDP
Ⅳ. How education contributes to economic growth?
How education contributes to economic growth?
 Sequential Bottom-up approach
 Sequential expansion of access to education from
Elementary, Secondary and Higher Education in advance
corresponded well to the manpower needs for Economic
development
– Elementary Ed.
Secondary Ed.
(1960s)
– Vocational-Technical
High schools
(1970s → 1980s)
– Expansion
of Higher Education
(1980s → Present)
→ Labor Intensive light
Manufacturing
→ Capital Intensive
Heavy-Chemical Industry
→ Electronics, High-tech
Knowledge Industry
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Ⅳ. How education contributes to economic growth?
How education contributes to economic growth?
 Expand and upgrade Technical and Vocational
Education and Training Infrastructure to develop
technical manpower
– 1960’s : Vocational High school
Jr Technical Colleges
Technical Universities
– 1970’s : Science Education
– Use of External Loans (IDA, IBRD etc)
 As part of “5 Years Economic Development Plan”
Compulsory Elementary School condition improved
– Special budget support from Economic Development Account
– Large class size reduced
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Ⅳ. How education contributes to economic growth?
How education contributes to economic growth?
 The Law of ‘Grants for Elementary-Secondary
Education’ are enacted. This is the return from
Economic Growth to Education Sector
– 12.98% of Domestic Tax
– Salaries for elementary school teachers legally secured
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Ⅴ .The relevance of TVE at Upper secondary
education
 Relevance of TVE: The most important dimension of TVE
 Three factors related to the Relevance of TVE
1) Demand: demands of job competency(+)
2) Supply side: level of technical competency(+)
 technical core competency(*)
 social capital (**)
 self-directed learning capacities(***)
3) Relative Position of TVE lowered:
 As tertiary enrollment level higher,
 As Economy developed,
 Job training for lower sec graduates (-)
 TVE at Upper Sec Edu(-)
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Ⅴ .The relevance of TVE at Upper secondary
education
 Emerging Challenges to TVE at Upper Sec Education
(1) Demand change: As economy grow and develop,
the demands of TVE and job competency are changing.
- demand of simple, low level, technical competency
decreased
- and demand of higher level, multi-tasking job
competency increased.
(2) Quality Upgrade: Unless TVE at Upper
Secondary Education upgrade its quality level, TVE at
USE lose its relevance of TVE.
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Ⅴ .The relevance of TVE at Upper secondary
education
 Upgrading the Quality of TVE at USE
(1) Horizontal Upgrading: Dual mode approach
- Establish a few but “Specialized Intensive Elite” Technical and
Vocational Schools. They should be Leading and Model TV Schools at
USE.
- Establish a “Generalized Technical and Vocational” Schools with
Vocational Orientation and guidance.
- General education
- Objective: Minimize total training costs
- Basic exercise and training at School
- Intensive training at the Workplace with Government’s financial
support.
- 2 + 1 system (two years school education and one years practice
in the workplace
- “General TV Schools” provide the flexibility maintaing the
balance between General and TV Schools.
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Ⅴ .The relevance of TVE at Upper secondary
education
(2) Vertical Upgrading: Relocating the Core TVE
function from Upper Sec Ed to “Junior Technical Colleges”
(Polytechnic Institute)
 Making the relationship “closer” between TVE and
Work places (Industry) to upgrade the relevance.
- demand orientation in Governance, Program, teacher
recruitment, and evaluation.
- cooperative relation
- implementation of the “customized programs”
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Ⅴ .The relevance of TVE at Upper secondary
education
 Development of institutional infrastructure to
support TVE.
- Developing the system of Qualification and License
- Job-Information system (Work-net)
- Expanding the opportunity to acquire
qualifications and Licenses.
 Development of Life-long Learning system for Job
Competency.
- National agenda for HRD
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Policy Question (1)
 Significance of Universalizing Lower
Secondary Education
- Expanding the base of Human Resources
Development
- Universal Primary education became the base of
Manpower development for economic take-off in
Korea in 1960’s.
- It develops the beginning stage for Sequential
Bottom-Up expansion.
- How to Universalize: Low Cost Approach
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Policy Question (2)
 Upper Secondary Education: Policy Issues
(1) Optimum enrollment level
- Upper limit: social demand for USE
- Lower limit: Gov’t financial constraint
- Increase with Low cost approach plus
Parent’s support
- Increase up to the level that 80% of
graduates either go to work or move to
Higher education.
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Policy Question (2)
(2) Quality Assurance of Secondary education
- teacher quality: the most important factor
- trade-off: reducing the Class size vs
recruiting high quality teachers.
- At 45 per class, priority given to recruiting high
quality teacher
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Policy Question (3)
 Balance between General Secondary Education
and Technical-Vocational Education and
Training.
(1) The portion of TVE has changed according to the
demand from Industries. It increased from 30% to
48.5% and decreased to 28%.
- due to decrease of students demand
- Dual mode is the response to this decrease.
General TV vs Specialized Elite TV
(2) balancing roles of General TV Schools.
(3) Provide “vocational orientation program” in
General Upper Secondary Schools.
33
Policy Question (3)
 Specialized Elite Technical-Vocational
Schools as alternative model for upgrading
status of Technical-Vocational Schools.
- High status
- diversity
- Model school for TV Schools
34