Chapter 9: Production and Productivity

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Transcript Chapter 9: Production and Productivity

Chapter 9:
Production and Productivity
GDP: Gross Domestic Product
 Economists monitor the macroeconomics using
national income accounting, a system that collects
statistics on production, income, investment, and
savings.
 Gross domestic product (GDP) is the dollar value of
all final goods and services produced within a
country’s borders in a given year.
 GDP does not include the value of intermediate
goods.

Intermediate goods are goods used in the production of final
goods and services.
Calculating GDP
The Expenditure Approach
 The expenditure approach totals annual
expenditures on four categories of final goods or
services.
1. Consumer goods and services
2. Business goods and services
3. Government goods and services
4. Net exports or imports of goods or
services.
Income Approach
The Income Approach
 The income approach calculates GDP by
adding up all the incomes in the economy.
 Consumer goods include durable goods,
goods that last for a relatively long time like
refrigerators, and nondurable goods, or
goods that last a short period of time, like
food and light bulbs.
Real and Nominal GDP
 Nominal GDP is GDP measured in
 Real GDP is GDP expressed in
current prices.
It does not account for price level
increases from year to year.
constant, or unchanging, dollars.
 GDP Deflator is a price index that
reduces prices into a base year.
Nominal and Real GDP
Year 1
Nominal
GDP
Suppose an economy‘s entire
output is cars and trucks.
This year the economy produces:
10 cars at $15,000 each = $150,000
+ 10 trucks at $20,000 each =
$200,000
Total = $350,000
Since we have used the current
year’s prices to express the
current year’s output, the result
is a nominal GDP of $350,000.
Year 2
Nominal
GDP
In the second year, the economy’s
output does not increase, but the
prices of the cars and trucks do:
10 cars at $16,000 each = $160,000
+ 10 trucks at $21,000 each =
$210,000
Total = $370,000
This new GDP figure of $370,000
is misleading. GDP rises because
of an increase in prices.
Economists prefer to have a
measure of GDP that is not
affected by changes in prices. So
they calculate real GDP.
Year 3
Real GDP
To correct for an increase in
prices, economists establish a set
of constant prices by choosing one
year as a base year. When they
calculate real GDP for other years,
they use the prices
from the base year. So we
calculate the real GDP for Year 2
using the prices from Year 1:
10 cars at $15,000 each = $150,000
+ 10 trucks at $20,000 each =
$200,000
Total = $350,000
Real GDP for Year 2, therefore,
is $350,000
Chart taken from: Prentice Hall
Limitations of GDP
 GDP does not take into account certain economic activities:
 Nonmarket Activities
GDP does not measure goods and services that people make or do
themselves, such as caring for children, mowing lawns, or
cooking dinner.

Negative Externalities

The Underground Economy

Quality of Life
Unintended economic side effects, such as pollution, have a
monetary value that is often not reflected in GDP.
There is much economic activity which, although income is
generated, never reported to the government. Examples include
black market transactions and "under the table" wages.
Although GDP is often used as a quality of life measurement, there
are factors not covered by it. These include leisure time, pleasant
surroundings, and personal safety.
GDP vs. GNP
 GNP = Produced by the residents of a country even if
they’re living abroad

So if a US resident earn money from an investment overseas.
That value would be included in GNP not GDP
 GDP = Total market value of all goods and services
produced with in the borders of a country –
regardless of nationality
Other input and Output Measures
Gross National Product (GNP)
 GNP is a measure of the market value of all goods and services
produced by Americans in one year.
Net National Product (NNP)
 NNP is a measure of the output made by Americans in one year minus
adjustments for depreciation. Depreciation is the loss of value of
capital equipment that results from normal wear and tear.
National Income (NI)
 NI is equal to NNP minus sales and excise taxes.
Personal Income (PI)
 PI is the total pre-tax income paid to U.S. households.
Disposable Personal Income (DPI)
 DPI is equal to personal income minus individual income taxes.
Key Macroeconomic Measurements
Measurements of the Macroeconomy
Gross Domestic
Product
+
income earned outside
U.S. by U.S. firms and
citizens
–
income earned by foreign
firms and foreign citizens
located in the U.S.
Gross National
Product
–
depreciation of
capital equipment
=
Net National
Product
Net National
Product
–
sales and excise taxes
=
National Income
National Income
–
+
other household income
Personal Income
–
• firms‘ reinvested profits
• firms‘ income taxes
• social security
individual income taxes
=
=
Gross National
Product
=
Personal Income
Disposable
Personal Income
Prentice Hall
Factors Influencing GDP
Aggregate Supply
 Aggregate supply is the total amount of goods and services
in the economy available at all possible price levels.
 As price levels rise, aggregate supply rises and real GDP
increases.
Aggregate Demand
 Aggregate demand is the amount of goods and services that
will be purchased at all possible price levels.
 Lower price levels will increase aggregate demand as
consumers’ purchasing power increases.
Aggregate Supply/Aggregate Demand Equilibrium
By combining aggregate supply curves and aggregate demand
curves, equilibrium for the macroeconomy can be
determined.
How do Economists Measure Economic Growth
 How do economists measure economic growth?
 What is capital deepening?
 How are saving and investing related to economic
growth?
 How does technological progress affect economic
growth?
 What other factors can affect economic growth?
Measuring Economic Growth
GDP and Population Growth
 In order to account for population increases in an economy,
economists use a measurement of real GDP per capita. It is
a measure of real GDP divided by the total population.
 Real GDP per capita is considered the best measure of a
nation’s standard of living.
GDP and Quality of Life
 Like measurements of GDP itself, the measurement of real
GDP per capita excludes many factors that affect the quality
of life.
 The basic measure of a nation’s economic growth
rate is the percentage change of real GDP over a
given period of time.
Capital Deepening
 The process of increasing the amount of capital per
worker is called capital deepening. Capital
deepening is one of the most important sources of
growth in modern economies.
 Firms increase physical capital by purchasing more
equipment. Firms and employees increase human
capital through additional training and education.
The Effects of Savings and Investing
How Saving Leads to Capital Deepening
Shawna’s income: $30,000
 The proportion of disposable
income spent to income saved is
called the savings rate.
 When consumers save or invest,
money in banks, their money
becomes available for firms to
borrow or use. This allows firms
to deepen capital.
 In the long run, more savings will
lead to higher output and income
for the population, raising GDP
and living standards.
$25,000 spent
$5,000 saved
$3,000 in a mutual
fund (stocks and
corporate bonds)
$2,000 in “rainy
day” bank account
Bank lends Shawna’s
Mutual-fund firm makes
money to firms in forms
Shawna’s $3,000
such as loans and
available to firms
mortgages
Firms spend money
on business capital
investment
Prentice Hall
Technological Process
 Besides capital deepening, the other key source of economic growth is technological
progress.
 Technological progress is an increase in efficiency gained by producing more output
without using more inputs.
 A variety of factors contribute to technological progress:
 Innovation When new products and ideas are successfully brought to market,
output goes up, boosting GDP and business profits.
 Scale of the Market Larger markets provide more incentives for innovation since
the potential profits are greater.
 Education and Experience Increased human capital makes workers more
productive. Educated workers may also have the necessary skills needed to use
new technology.
 New products
 New method of production
 New ways of organizing production of marketing products
 New methods of communication can each demonstrate how productivity
increases
Other factors affecting growth:
Population Growth
 If population grows while the supply of capital remains constant,
the amount of capital per worker will actually shrink.
Government
 Government can affect the process of economic growth by raising
or lowering taxes. Government use of tax revenues also affects
growth: funds spent on public goods increase investment, while
funds spent on consumption decrease net investment.
Foreign Trade
 Trade deficits, the result of importing more goods than exporting
goods, can sometimes increase investment and capital deepening
if the imports consist of investment goods rather than consumer
goods.
Chapter 10:
THE U.S.
LABOR FORCE
Labor Force, Differences in Wages and Salaries
 Labor force: all people not in institutions who are 16
years of age or older and who are currently employed
or who are unemployed and looking for work
 Difference in ability.
 Differences in effort and jobs.
 Experience.
 Good timing.
The Rise of AFL and CIO
 AFL: American Federation of Labor: was formed
under the leadership of Samuel Gompers

Gompers introduced a policy of business unionism that
concentrated union efforts on obtaining higher wages and
better working conditions rather than asserting political
influence
 John L. Lewis: formed a rival organization CIO
 CIO: Congress of Industrial Organizations

This organization joined ranks with workers from the steel,
automobile, rubber, textile, and meat-packing industries GIVING
RISE to the term INDUSTRIAL UNION
 Industrial union: made up of both skilled and unskilled workers
in a particular plant or industry
Labor Legislation and the Growth of the Unions
 Clayton Act: made labor unions “exempt” from antitrust
rules and regulations
 Norris-LaGuardia Act of 1932: limited the ability of the
courts to use injunctions

Injunctions: used to stop workers from striking
 Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938: Minimum wage law
 National Labor Relations Act of 1935: (Wagner Act):
measure guaranteed the right of workers to join unions
and engage in collective bargaining
 Labor-Management Relations (Taft-Hartley) Act of 1947:
prevented labor unions from engaging in “unfair labor
practices”
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Take out your books – Pg. 173 Bottom Activity
Nonmarket Forces
 Knowledge, skills, education, experience and even
timing all affect demand and supply
 People like to stay where they are
 Job discrimination – the practice of favoring one
person over another for reasons that have nothing to
do with ability to perform a job

May be related to education or access to education and
training – community differences – levels of experience
Labor Unions
 Labor Union: an association of workers that seeks to
improve its members’ wages, working conditions,
and benefits
 Collective bargaining: process in which union and
company representatives meet to negotiate a new
labor contract
 If a union and management cannot agree on wages,
benefits, or working conditions through collective
bargaining – the union may strike

STRIKE – withholding of labor services by a union
Chapter 9: Vocabulary
 GDP: Gross Domestic Product: final value of all goods
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and services produced within a country in a year
Nominal GDP: GDP reported in current prices
Real GDP: GDP adjusted for inflation
GDP deflator: price index that reduces current prices into
prices of a base year
Real per Capita GDP: the real gross domestic product
divided by the country’s population


The change is real per capita GDP is a good indicator of a change in a
nation’s standard of living
It is a measure of the amount of goods and services available to a
nation’s citizens
Vocabulary Continued…
• Productivity: the output of goods and services
measured per unit of input by labor, capital, land
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
Input: workers, capital resources, or the amount of work space
used
When productivity goes UP, more or better products are
produced with the same amount of resources
 Labor productivity: the amount of goods and services
the work force can produce during a given time
period-an hour, a week, a month, a year

Increasing labor productivity is the main force behind growing
per capita real GDP
Vocabulary Continued again…
 Fixed costs: costs that remain the same regardless of the amount of
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product a firm produces
Variable costs: costs that change with the changing amounts of
production
Average fixed costs: total fixed costs divided by the quantity
produced
Average variable costs: total variable costs divided by the quantity
produced
Total costs: the sum of total fixed costs and total variable costs
Marginal cost: additional cost of increasing a unit of production
Law of diminishing marginal returns: economic principle which
holds that as more and more variable resources (such as workers or
materials) are added to a fixed amount of other resources (such as
building and equipment), the additional (marginal) amount
produced eventually decreases
Vocabulary continued…yet again…
 Marginal revenue: the additional revenue generated
from the sale of an additional quantity of the product
 Total revenue: a calculation of revenue that is
determined by price times quantity sold

(Total Revenue – Total Cost = Total Profit)
 Marginal analysis: decision making that involves
comparing marginal (additional) benefits and
marginal costs
 Economies of scale: reductions in cost resulting from
large-scale production
Chapter 10: Vocabulary
 Derived demand: demand for a resource (such as labor) based
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on the demand for goods and services that the resource
produces
Labor force: all people not in institutions who are 16 years of
age or older and who are currently employed or who are
unemployed and looking for work
Job discrimination: the practice of favoring one person over
another for reasons that have nothing to do with ability to
perform a job
Labor union: an association of workers that seeks to improve
its members’ wages, working conditions, and benefits
Collective bargaining: a process in which union and company
representatives meet to negotiate a new labor contract
Vocabulary continued…
 Strike: a withholding of labor services by a union
 Grievance: formal complaint made by a union if it feels one
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member or a class of its members have been treated
inappropriately under the terms of the contract
Seniority: a worker’s length of service with an employer
Lockout: closing down of a business to pressure a union into
accepting employment conditions
Injunction: a court order to keep a union from striking and
picketing
Picketing: the act of employees carrying signs that call attention
to a labor strike with the goal of arousing public sympathy
Union shop: nonunion members can be hired by the factory,
business or agency but only in the condition that they join the
union after they are hired