Issues in Caribbean Development

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Transcript Issues in Caribbean Development

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CARIBBEAN STUDIES
ISSUES IN CARIBBEAN
DEVELOPMENT
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Concepts, Promotion and Globalisation
Prepared and Presented by: J. Hyman
Manchester High School
March 7, 2012
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LEARNING OUTCOMES
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At the end of the session, students will be able to:
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2.
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Describe the concepts of development and the
indicators used to measure development
Evaluate how development in the Caribbean
region is influenced by political, economic, social,
cultural, environmental and technological factors
Assess the ways in which globalisation affects
development in the region
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ANTECEDENTS

During the last half of the 20th Century, four
factors became the central concerns and
aspirations of the world’s peoples:
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3.
4.
Peace
Freedom
Development
Environment
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DEVELOPMENT…?
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CONCEPTS
Enactment of human values
1.
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For anything to develop or become better,
improvement has to be related to some values that
are being enacted.
Different people in this scenario see development
differently e.g. knowledge, material possessions,
relationships.
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CONCEPTS (CONT’D)
2. Increasing differentiation or complexity:
- For anything to develop, it must become more
complex and more differentiated e.g. how society
is traditionally described: developed, developing,
agrarian, opulent, industrialized.
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CONCEPTS (CONT’D)
3. Liberation or human freedom:
- For any people to be developed, this must be
accompanied by growth in their autonomy, the
options they pursue and in their sense of selfefficacy
- This is achieved through education and
empowerment
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APPROACHES TO DEVELOPMENT
1.
2.
3.
Economic development
Human development paradigm (HDP)
Sustainable development
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ECONOMIC GROWTH OR ECONOMIC
DEVELOPMENT…?
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Occurs when an economy achieves an increase in
its national income (GNP) in excess of its rate of
population growth
An increase in the productive potential in an
economy shown by an outward shift of the
production possibility curve
This leads to an increase in GNP per capita
Does not always result in increased benefits for
poorer members of the society
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ECONOMIC GROWTH
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An increase in the real GDP over a period of time e.g.
if in year 1, real GDP was $100B and in year 2 it rises
to $110B, the economic growth would be 10%
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DEFINITION (CONT’D)
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Economic growth may result in an improvement
in the standard of living of a small proportion of
the population, whilst the majority of people
remain poor.
Economic development requires that the benefits
of economic growth are distributed amongst all
individuals of the population.
It is therefore possible for the Caribbean to
experience economic growth but not have any
economic development
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GROWTH VS. DEVELOPMENT
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The processes through which the quality of life,
economically and socially, can be improved
Encompasses an improved quality of life by:
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Better education
Higher standards of health and nutrition
Less poverty
Cleaner environment
Equality of opportunity
Greater individual freedom
Richer cultural life
(World Bank
Report, 1991)
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1. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
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
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What is an indicator? This is a qualitative assessment of
how countries are ranked on some variable or category
such as population growth or savings per capita.
Gross National Product- is the value of goods and
services produced by a country plus any income derived
from abroad. While it is said to be a good indicator of the
economic strengths and weaknesses of countries, it cannot
be said to indicate economic development.
Gross Domestic Product- is the total market value of
goods and services of a country in a given year. This is also
used to divide the population.
Population Growth- is calculated by birth and death
rates, as well as migration statistics, and is a key indicator
of economic growth.
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INDICATORS OF ECONOMIC
DEVELOPMENT
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
Age dependency ratio- is the ratio of
dependents- people younger than 15 and older
than 65 to the working population ( 15- 64). This
measure suggests that if there were more
economically active persons than dependents
then they would be better able to take care of the
dependents.
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INDICATORS OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
CONT’D
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
Basic views:
People are the means and ends of development- thus
people are central to the development process.
 Development is largely about broadening people’s
choices; they have more choices and opportunities to
develop themselves along the lines that bring them
the greatest sense of well being as well as income.
 Poverty and income inequality are the major
problems of societies that prevent a better quality of
life.
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2. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT PARADIGM
(HDP) 1990S
HDP embraces all of society, not just the
economy
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Essential components (Pillars) of HDP:
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HDP (CONT’D)
Equity (equitable access to opportunities) by all groups
within society.
– Productivity (requires investments in people and an
enabling macroeconomic environment for them to achieve
their maximum potential) For example, equal access to
education and job opportunities will increase productivity
levels of the country.
– Empowerment (people must participate in the activities,
events and processes that shape their lives) in order to
become productive citizens. With people being able to
chart the course of their development then this will boost
their self esteem.
– Sustainability (the next generation deserves the
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opportunity to enjoy the same well-being that we now
enjoy)
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HDP is the most holistic development model that
exists, embracing:
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HDP (CONT’D)
Economic growth
Social investment
People’s empowerment
Provision of basic needs and social safety nets
Political and cultural freedoms
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SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
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‘Development that meets the needs of the present
without compromising the ability of future
generations to meet their own needs.’
Sustainable development is not primarily an
environmental issue.
In societies where there is inequality in the
distribution of income, daily survival will hold
more priority than the well-being of future
generations.
Concerned about the measure of the quality of
life, called the Human Development Index (HDI)
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3. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
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Defined as development that is likely to achieve
lasting satisfaction of human needs and
improvement of the quality of life and
encompasses:
 Help for the very poorest who are left with no
option but to destroy their environment to
survive
 Idea of self-reliant development with natural
resource constraints
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SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
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Cost effective development using different
economic criteria to the traditional –i.e.
development should not degrade environment
 Important issues of health control, appropriate
technologies, food self-reliance, clean water and
shelter for all
 People centered activities are necessary- human
beings are the resources in the concept
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SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
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The HDI, as measured by the UNDP uses the
following factors:
i.
Real GDP per capita
ii.
Longevity or life expectancy at birth in years
iii. Educational attainment (access to education
and literacy rates)
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HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI)
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Country
HDI
Barbados
0.878
Saint Kitts and Nevis
0.834
Bahamas
0.832
Trinidad and Tobago
0.801
Antigua and Barbuda
0.797
Grenada
0.787
Dominica
0.783
Saint Lucia
0.772
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
0.755
Suriname
0.755
Belize
0.753
Jamaica
0.738
Guyana
0.720
Haiti
0.475
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UNDP HDI REPORT 2005
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High HDI Countries (<0.8)
 Medium HDI Countries (0.51 – 0.79)
 Low HDI Countries (>0.5)
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HDI INTERPRETATIONS
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1.
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Eradicate extreme poverty
Achieve universal primary education
Promote gender equality and empower women
Reduce child mortality
Improve maternal health
Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
Ensure environmental sustainability
Develop a global partnership for development
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HDI AS PART OF UN MDG
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FACTORS INFLUENCING DEVELOPMENT
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1.
2.
3.
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5.
Economic
Political
Social
Cultural
Environmental
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FACTORS INFLUENCING DEVELOPMENT
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Development cannot occur without a vibrant
economy or productive sector
 Productive sector:
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ECONOMIC FACTORS
Primary (extractive)
 Secondary (manufacturing)
 Tertiary (services)
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Competitiveness (performance on the world
market)
Demand (market share inside/outside)
Productivity (manual vs. mental)
Infrastructure (reliable systems, bureaucracy)
Investment climate (FDI, Entrepreneurship)
Debt (trade imbalances)
External shocks (vulnerability, natural
disasters)
Technology (inadequate investments in ICTs)
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FACTORS THAT IMPACT THE CARIBBEAN
PRODUCTIVE SECTOR
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Political ideologies and beliefs
 Resource allocation mechanisms (centrally
planned, laissez-faire, mixed)
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POLITICAL FACTORS
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Distribution of wealth and resources can
promote/hinder development as it influences the
income generation in the society
Poverty:
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SOCIAL FACTORS
Absolute (# of people who are unable to afford basic
goods/services)
– Relative (extent to which an individual’s resources
falls below the income level of the economy)
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Inequality/Social exclusion
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Underlying causes of poverty:
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Unemployment
Temporary employment
Low wage employment
Inflation
Non ownership of resources
Uneven income distribution
Large number of dependents
Discrimination
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SOCIAL FACTORS (CONT’D)
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How one interprets Caribbean history and future
will influence how development is seen and how
one participates in it
Development is essentially about the enactment
of human values in which the emphasis is on
modernization and western lifestyle
Caribbean society, throughout colonialism, was
based on exploitation and a rigidly stratified
social system
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CULTURAL FACTORS
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Natural disasters
 Environmental disasters
 Lackadaisical attempts to curb soil erosion
 Poor disaster preparedness and disaster
management policies
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ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
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