IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme - IEA-PVPS

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Transcript IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme - IEA-PVPS

IEA INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY
PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS PROGRAMME
Overview
1. Introduction / Summary
2. PV-diesel hybrid systems
3. Measurement equipment – chapter for
electricians
4. Measurements
5. Short term evaluation
6. Long term evaluation
7. Incase of a blackout
8. Afterword
9. Templates
IEA INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY
PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS PROGRAMME
Applicability of the guideline
• any type of PV system
• one or several liquid-fuelled and manually (or
automatically) operated generators
• lead acid batteries of 12 V, 24 V or 48 V
• charge controller of series type
• DC or AC or mixed type of distribution network
and
• system location in a tropical or sub-tropical
environment at low latitude
IEA INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY
PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS PROGRAMME
System Components
IEA INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY
PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS PROGRAMME
Analogy power system – water storage system
IEA INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY
PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS PROGRAMME
General explanations on PV-diesel hybrid
systems
•
Explanations on system components: PV panels,
generator, battery, load, PV charge controller,
inverter, AC charger, fuses
•
Energy system balance
•
System operation (when to charge batteries, when to
start generator etc.)
•
Maintenance (general explanations on various
indications)
IEA INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY
PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS PROGRAMME
What measurements are required?
•
Battery voltage measurement. Measured using a
voltmeter or a multi meter. If charge controller or
inverter displays the battery voltage or the battery
state of charge, this value can possibly be used.
•
Energy from PV. Measured using an accumulative
DC energy meter. If the charge controller displays
incoming energy from PV, this value can possibly be
used.
•
Energy from generator. Measured using an
accumulative AC energy meter. If the AC charger
displays incoming energy from the generator, this
value can possibly be used.
IEA INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY
PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS PROGRAMME
What measurements are required?
•
Energy to AC load. Measured using an
accumulative AC energy meter. If the inverter is
displaying energy going to AC load, this value can
possibly be used.
•
Energy to DC load. Measured using an
accumulative DC energy meter. If the charge
controller displays energy going to DC load, this
value can possibly be used.
•
Optional: Fuel consumption. Measured using an
automatic fuel log. (Manual logging of all fuel fills
can also be used)
IEA INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY
PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS PROGRAMME
Measurement equipment (chapter for
electricians)
• Where and how to install measurement equipment
• What to explain to the operator: mark reading spots,
note down readings, add values, create graphs,
time for measurements, scale of graphs, system
voltage, installed PV capacity, design value for
share of PV, logging fuel)
• How to identify suitable scale for the graphs
IEA INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY
PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS PROGRAMME
Identify suitable scale for graphs
IEA INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY
PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS PROGRAMME
Where measurements are taken
IEA INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY
PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS PROGRAMME
Measurements
• When and how to take measurements
• How to make calculations
IEA INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY
PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS PROGRAMME
Measurements
• How to plot the obtained values in a graph
IEA INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY
PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS PROGRAMME
Example: filled table and battery
voltage graph
y-axis
x-axis
IEA INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY
PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS PROGRAMME
Short term evaluation
• Evaluation of battery voltage graph (short term,
every day)
• Evaluation of load & generation curves (as soon
as battery voltage gives indication, at least once
in a week)
• Is the system operated well?
• Can generation meet the load
• Can more load be connected (without extending
operation of generators)
• Indication of failures in the system
IEA INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY
PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS PROGRAMME
Battery voltage
•
Dot sometimes in grey or
black area: should not
happen too often (critical if
more than 2 days in grey
or black)
[V]
Battery voltage graph
Dots always high up in
white area: very good!
maybe possibility to use
generator less or increase
load (analyse generation
and load curve)
12.9
12.8
12.7
12.6
12.5
12.4
12.3
12.2
12.1
12.0
11.9
11.8
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
[V]
Battery voltage graph
•
12.9
12.8
12.7
12.6
12.5
12.4
12.3
12.2
12.1
12.0
11.9
11.8
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
IEA INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY
PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS PROGRAMME
Battery voltage
•
Voltage decreasing
over time: not good!
Analyse generation and
load curve and find
problem!
[V]
Battery voltage graph
Dots in grey are for
many days: not so
good, batteries working
hard! Analyse
generation and load
curves to find problem;
probably batteries are
damaged or old
12.9
12.8
12.7
12.6
12.5
12.4
12.3
12.2
12.1
12.0
11.9
11.8
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
[V]
Battery voltage graph
•
12.9
12.8
12.7
12.6
12.5
12.4
12.3
12.2
12.1
12.0
11.9
11.8
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
IEA INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY
PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS PROGRAMME
Battery voltage
Voltage increasing
over time: good!
Batteries operating
in a healthier and
healthier way
[V]
Battery voltage graph
•
12.9
12.8
12.7
12.6
12.5
12.4
12.3
12.2
12.1
12.0
11.9
11.8
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
•
Today’s voltage lower than scale of template: either
high load connected or battery voltage dangerously
low; find the reason!
•
Today’s voltage higher than scale of template: either
measurement taken after sunrise or when generator
was on OR error in measurement
IEA INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY
PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS PROGRAMME
Evaluation load (black) & generation (yellow)
•
Not good! Battery
voltage certainly
decreasing
•
Good! Battery voltage
certainly increasing
(generation following
load curve)
•
Generation constant
and load decreasing;
probably battery
voltage decreasing
IEA INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY
PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS PROGRAMME
Long term evaluation
•
Understand any changes over time: increasing load,
degrading PV panels etc.
•
Should be done every month; comparison with
earlier months and years (also comparing average
monthly & yearly parameters)
•
Evaluation of battery voltage, load and generation,
but also share of PV, normalised PV yield (energy in
kWh generated per installed kWp per day), system
losses, fuel consumption
IEA INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY
PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS PROGRAMME
Calculations (e.g. monthly evaluations)