Team3phase1

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Transcript Team3phase1

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Eric Graves
Richard Roh
David Mapes
Nick Bertrand
Mark Adamak
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BSEE, CS minor
BSEE, BSBioChem
BSEE
BSEE
BSEE, BSME
Expertise and Experience
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Eric Graves:
Expertise: Digital: PLD/FPGA VHDL; Experience: 2 years intern Hayes Brake
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Richard Roh:
Expertise: Analog design, Microprocessor; Experience: 2 years co-op ReGENco
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David Mapes:
Expertise: Digital: PLD/FPGA VHDL, IC’s
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Nick Bertrand: Expertise: Amplifier design, Microprocessor
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Mark Adamak:
Expertise: Digital/Analog Circuit, AC Motors/Drives, VHDL, PLC/PLD, Experience:
Co-op at Kohler Co.; Internship at Interstate Drop Forge
Contact Information
Eric Graves:
Phone: (414) 232-0792;
Email: [email protected]
Richard Roh:
Phone: (262) 853-1475;
Email: [email protected]
David Mapes:
Phone: (414) 324-5816
Email: [email protected]
Nick Bertrand:
Phone 1:(414) 727-4912
Email: [email protected]
Mark Adamak:
Phone 1: (262) 548-0331 Email: [email protected]
Weekly Availability Information
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Eric Graves:
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Richard Roh: Monday till noon; Monday after 5pm; Thursday 8am to 6pm;
Wednesday till 2pm
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David Mapes: Monday until 4pm; Wednesday till 4pm; Tuesday after 5pm
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Nick Bertrand: Tuesday after 5pm; Friday after 4pm; Sat/Sun after 4pm
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Mark Adamak: Mon/Wed Before 5pm; Tues/Thus Before 1pm
Friday after noon; Weekends
Tuesday after 5pm; Friday after 5pm; Monday until noon;
Wednesday until noon
Weekly Project Meeting Times
Weekly Meeting 1:
Electronics lab E203EMS Building , Wednesday 6:30pm - 10pm
Weekly Meeting 2:
Monday and Wednesday, 8am - 12pm
Other Weekly Meetings:
AS NEEDED
Total Resources
• A total of approximately 500 man-hours is what this group has committed to the
project.
• The group decided that a $250 ($50 per group member) budget was adequate
for the project. This figure may be adjusted as the design project evolves.
Decision
• The group will make all major decisions based on a majority vote. Consensus of
three members.
• Each individual assigned to a design block will have the discretion to make their
own decisions.
• If a conflict arises for any reason, a vote will be taken to resolve the situation.
Group Roles
• Project Archiver:
Nick - Owns weekly backup of all electronic material
generated that week.
• Presentation Mgr:
Mark - Owns master MS Powerpoint slide set.
• Report Mgr:
Richard - Owns master MS Word document for team
including revision control.
Project Selection:
• The ‘Mountain Bike ABS Control System’ was
the project that we selected.
We chose this project because of the following
reasons…
• Originality: No other similar product for a mountain bike application.
• Donated Parts: Most of the hydraulic brake system provided by Hayes
Brakes LLC.
• Feasibility and Likeability: Adapting an already implemented idea to a
new application that could possibly be marketable. Also, all of the
group members liked the project.
Other projects were rejected because…
• Difficulty Level: The other two projects were either to simple (Multiple
Hazard Detector) or to difficult (Automated Robotic Lawnmower) for
the scope of this class.
• Expertise: Group lacked experience with topics needed for other
selected projects.
• Desire to do the Project: Disagreement in group on feasibility and
likeability of other projects.
Power Supply Block
Block Diagram Key
Eric Graves
Richard Roh
David Mapes
Recharger
Battery Pack
Nick Bertrand
Mark Adamak
Note: Colored outline represents
person who will assist the person
who is in charge of a specific block
Rectifier / Regulation
Circuit
Separate
Battery Charger
Station
Battery Low Signal
Voltage Regulation
Conditioning and
Battery Status Monitor
120VAC NEMA
Standard Plug
12 VDC Bus
5VDC Bus
5VDC Bus
Block Diagram Key
Eric Graves
Note: Colored outline represents
person who will assist the person
who is in charge of a specific block
Battery Low Signal
Control Logic
Richard Roh
Protection
Circuit
David Mapes
Nick Bertrand
Central Logic/Processor
Actuator/Valve
Control
Circuit
Sensor Filter/Encoder/Decoder
Mark Adamak
5VDC Bus
4 SIGNAL
LINES
6 SIGNAL
LINES
6 SIGNAL
LINES
Sensors
Wheel Accel
Sensor
Brake Handle
Exerted
Sensor
12 VDC Bus
Actuator
Battery Indicator
ABS Online Indicator
ABS Disconnect Switch
ETC
User Interface
5VDC Bus
Actuator/Valve
Power Circuit
Actuator
Valve
The Mountain Bike ABS Control System Description…
• Aftermarket antilock brakes for a dual rotor, hydraulic disc brake
system.
• This will provide steering control in an aggressive braking situation while
the rider is participating in extreme mountain bike riding.
• Will prevent the locking of brakes during decel and low friction
conditions.
• The controller will also give the rider the ability to over-ride the ABS
action.
• A small display will inform the rider of the status of the system; when
brakes are enabled, activated, and battery charge indicator.
The Mountain Bike ABS Control System Specifics…
• Cost of System not to exceed $250
• Must have standard NEMA plug (120VAC) power input battery
recharger
• ABS Actuation system will be comprised of springs, solenoids and
valves to remove and drive pressure into brake system. Must be
constructed by the end of February, 2004
• A 6VAC tire generator power input producing approximately 60WH
for recharging battery during operation of mountain bike
• 1 AHr Nickel Metal Hydride battery pack
• Maximum product mass of 10 lbs
• 4 Printed circuit boards
The Mountain Bike ABS Control System Specifics…
• An inductive proximity sensor that operates on 5VDC to measure
change in wheel rotation
• User Interface incorporating LED display to inform rider of low
battery, ABS actuation, and when
- the ABS system is online
• Momentary contact switch to turn ABS System on and off at riders
discretion
• Two maintained voltage busses: 5VDC for control logic; 12 VDC for
powering actuators and valves
• Mounting and packaging consideration for all components must be
chosen
Design Block I: Richard Roh, Power Supply, Standard Requirements.
•A total of five thousand power supply units will be produced
•Production cost will be $105 per unit, and estimated prototype cost will be $120 per unit.
•There are three energy sources:
~ Nickel Metal Hydride Battery, operating @ 10 VDC to 14 VDC, with energy consumption of
4100 mAH, temporary 9 position male/female quick connects.
~120 VAC/60Hz Charger, operating @ 102 VAC to 132 VAC, with energy consumption of 56 WH,
with NEMA plug to wall outlet and 9 position male/female plug to battery pack.
•Power supply block will occupy approximately 189 cubic centimeters.
•Shipping volume will be about 274 cubic centimeters.
•Approximate weight of power supply is 1.6 Kg.
•One PC board will be used to interface with voltage regulators and power buses, this board will occupy about
5 squared centimeters
•Power supply will be able to sustain an impact of 5 G’s with a repetition of 100 times of impact.
•Power supply will operate in the same environmental condition as the entire ABS unit.
Design Block 1: Detailed Block Diagram for Power Supply
Recharger
CLED
Molex quick
connects
charging
indicators
10 C Size Nickel Metal
Hydride rated @ 1.2 V ea.
4000mAH
Battery Low Signal
Transformer/Diode
Charging Current
Circuit
Filter Capacitor
LM7805
120VAC NEMA
Standard Plug
Filter Capacitor
12 VDC Bus
5VDC Bus
Design Block I: Richard Roh, Power Supply, Standard Requirements. Continued
•A total of five thousand power supply units will be produced
•Primary safety standards will be articulated by the articles IEC 950 and UL 2601.
•Primary EMC standards will be set forth by EN55011, IEC 60601-1-2, 61000-4-5, 61000-4-11,61000-4-2,
61000-3-2,61000-3-3,61000-4-5
•The total parts count of power supply will be about 63 ; of these about 50 will unique.
•Total material cost will be estimated to $100, and maximum assembly and test cost will be $12.
•Maximum production lifetime is 5 years, and the average storage life of the battery pack is two years.
•Battery pack is environmentally friendly and can be recycled.
•Battery pack will be replaced for any defects within 90 days.
• Nickel Metal Hydride battery pack will consist of 10 AA stacked in series spot welded by nickel foil strips.
•Battery pack will be shrinked wrapped.
•Charger consists of AC transformer, diode bridge rectifier, and Zener diode charge indicator circuit.
Design Block I: Richard Roh, Power Supply, Performance Requirements
•Zener diode LED circuit is used to indicate charge status.
•Amber LED wiil indicate a charge voltage of less than 14 VDC, while green LED will indicate a charge
voltage of greater than 14 VDC (full charge). This display will be viewed at a maximum distance of 1 meter,
in an indoor setting.
•Charging Characteristics
~charger will be constructed with AC transformer of primary rating of 120 VAC/60 Hz, and
secondary rating of 12 VAC at 0.5 A.
~nominal charge voltage will be 1.55 V
~standard charge rate method will be used, charge is for 16 hours, 10 % of rated capacity
per hour (C/10). Discharge rate of C/3 will given an approximate continuous runtime of 5 hours.
~current charge range will be from 345 mA to 375mA.
~discharge rate will be 3C continuous, spikes @ 6C, and minimum voltage cutoff 1.0V
~charging temperature 10 to 40 C, discharging -20 to 40 C, storage –20 to 30 C
•Battery Characteristics:
~500 recharging cycles.
~minimal memory effect, environmentally friendly
~nominal voltage 1.2 V, fully charged voltage 1.4V, fully discharged voltage 1.0V.
~capacity range from 3900 mAH to 4100 mAH
~maximum internal resistance @ 1000 Hz is 19.0 mOhm.
~battery pack will have a voltage range of 10V to 14 V.
Design Block I: Richard Roh, Power Supply, Performance Requirements Continued
•Electrical Interfaces:
~The voltage from the charged battery pack will interface with a 5 VDC and 12 VDC bus.
~LM7805 will be used for the 5 VDC bus.
Design Block 2: Eric Graves, Control Logic, Standard Requirements
•30% of total prototype cost - $150
•1% of total product volume – 5.4cm^3
•3.33% of total product mass – 0.165 kg
Design Block 2: Eric Graves, Control Logic, Performance Requirements
•Nominal input power – 5 VDC
•Must not consume a lot of power
•Must have capacity to “decide” if the breaks are locked.
•Must have ability to do fast floating-point calculations.
•Must have TTL I/O
•Must take input from rider and bike asynchronously
Sensors
Digital signal:
Digital Signal:
Wheel rotation data,
sends 32 pulses per
revolution
2 Bits, one for each
enable/disable user
control switch
2
2
Power
User
Microcontroller
Supply
Interface
4
Supply:
+5 Vdc
Power Bus
5
Digital Signal:
2
Digital Signal:
Digital Signal:
5 Bit communication bus
between ABS actuator
and microcontroller
ABS
Actuator
Future feature,
Error signals from
ABS actuator.
4 Bit bus to
accommodate
expandable user
feed back.
Wheel Lock Determination Algorithm Description
This algorithm is predicated if the brake lever is being squeezed.
1.
Determine the delta time between each input pulse coming from a
particular wheel
2.
Compute a rolling average of the time between each pulse. The rolling
average will span 8 pulses.
3.
Compare the current delta time with the rolling average of delta times.
I.
Rider and bike are considered within normal operation
parameters if current delta time is within 10% of rolling average
II.
If current delta time is greater than 10% of rolling average, then
the wheels will be considered locked up.
i.
The rational is that a 10% change in the time between
pulses, and hence speed of the bike, in ¼ of the rotation of
the wheel is physically impossible.
The percentage of current delta time compared to rolling average may need to
be altered or set on a function based on speed. The exact percentage will
become more clear after field testing.
Design Block 3: David Mapes, Sensor Equipment, Standard Requirements
•Maximum sensor prototype cost: $100
•Total individual parts count/unique: 50 / 40
•Maximum size: 50 cm3
•Maximum weight: 0.15Kg
•Temperature range: 0 - 150°C
Design Block 3: David Mapes, Sensor Equipment, Performance Requirements
•Digital output
~VOH: 5V
~VOL_MAX: 1V
~Max frequency: 15KHz
•Power
~Maximum current: 250mA
~Maximum voltage: 12V
~Robust enough for environment (dirt, water, vibration, ect.)
Microprocessor
Sensor Block
4 Signal Lines
Signal
Regulation
Debounce
Circuit
Brake Handle
Exerted
Sensor
Hayes micro-pushbutton
Wheel Accel Sensor
Hamblin 320 Hall Effect
5VDC
Design Considerations for Sensors
- Normally open micro-pushbutton switch
- Max Frequency (26 inch mountain bike tire)
~676 pulses/sec or 676Hz
~1 pulse every 1.47ms
- Output Signals
~Output high > min input high (microprocessor)
~Output low < max input low (microprocessor)
Design Block 4: Nick Bertrand, User Interface, Standard Requirements
•Expected to consume approximately 20% of the total volume of the shipping container
•Will only contain 25% of the total boards in the design ( = 1 board)
•Will only be 3.33% of the total mass for the product (< 1.5 Kg)
•Will require 10% of the total cost of all parts and materials (< $15)
•Max Parts Count: < 35 parts
•Max Unique Parts Count: < 20 unique
•Parts/Mat $ Allocation: < $15
•Asm/Test $ Allocation: < $10
•Portion of total design cost: < $100
•Operating Temperature Range: -17O to 120O C
(0O -248O F)
•Operating Humidity Range ( same as storage range): 0 - 100% RH
User Interface
Design Block 4: Detailed Block Diagram for User Interface
Bar of LEDs
(microcurrent)
ABS Override Switch
ABS Online Indicator
(LED)
Override Signal
Battery Indicator
Circuitry
12V DC Supply
Control Logic
Central Logic/Processor
Sensor Filter/Encoder/Decoder
Battery Pack
•Override switch, will most likely be a simple pushbutton switch.
•The battery monitor circuit can contain one of two things:
- A group of six 2N3904’s cascaded together.
- A voltage comparator with hysteresis.
•One of the main disadvantages with the transistor circuit:
- larger amount of current
•Other disadvantages:
-Voltage reading accuracy depends on Zener diodes
-Not reliable for small voltage variations.
•A comparator will be used within the battery indicator circuitry (LM239 or
LM138)
- LM138 a better temperature range of (-25O to +125O)
- The leakage current in off position will be approximately 0.5nA
•Main disadvantage of IC comparator:
- Needs a reliable reference voltage
•Main advantage of IC comparator:
- High accuracy of the voltage measurements.
- Low power dissipation (approximately 1mW)
- Outputting to an oscillator, then to LEDs could conserve power.
Design Block 4: Nick Bertrand, User Interface, Performance Requirements
•Nominal Input Power Sources: 12VDC
•Optical Indicators, Displays: Bar of LED’s (low-battery indicator)
•Max viewing distance: 2 meters
•Viewing environment: Outdoors
•User Controls: On/Off Switch & Override Switch
•Operational Modes: On/Off, Override
Design Block 5: Mark Adamak, Actuator and Valve Power/Control, Stnd Requirements
•Block Prototype Cost Allocation: $150
•Max Product Volume: 189cm3
•Total block component mass: 2kg
•Total part count: Approximately 50 parts
• Operating and Storage Temperature: 0O to 150O C
• All electrical components will be fastened in a manner to withstand an impact of 5 G’s at 100 cycles.
•All electrical components enclosed in manner to protect them from liquid, dirt, etc.
•Control logic will run from 0-5VDC; Power Circuit components will run on 12VDC
•Maximum current draw for all components to be less than 2.5 amps
Design Block 5: Detailed Block Diagram for ABS Actuator
12 VDC BUS
Front Brake Unit
5 SIGNAL LINES FROM
MICROPROCESSOR
3 - Control Signals
ABS Control Logic
Input Protection
Buffer
(Diodes and
op-amps)
Actuator Control
Power Circuit (FETs)
2/12 VDC Signal
Output
Buffer
(op-amp)
Snap-Tite
Wattmizer
Valves
Actuator Control
Logic
(Lattice 44 pin
Mach 4 PLD)
Linear Actuator
(If needed)
Rear Brake Unit
3 - Control Signals
ABS Actuator Control
Power Circuit (FETs)
2/12 VDC Signal
5 VDC BUS
1/12 VDC Signal
Snap-Tite
Wattmizer
Valves
1/12 VDC Signal
Linear Actuator
(If needed)
HAND GRIP CYLINDER
FLUID LINE
ABS SYSTEM DESIGN:
STAGE 1
DESIGN COMPONENTS ADDED TO SYSTEM
N.O. SOLENOID
VALVE
BRAKE CALIPERS
N.C. SOLENOID
VALVE
ABS ACTUATOR CYLINDER
ABS SYSTEM STAGE 1 TIMING DIAGRAM
FrABS_on
FrBrake_on
ReABS_on
ReBrake_on
FrNOValve
FrNCValve
ReNOValve
ReNCValve
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Advantages of stage one design:
- Low weight
- Low power consumption
- Minimal parts and construction
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Disadvantages of stage one design:
- Design based on idealized model
- Relies on random oscillation
- Timing problems
- Possible bottoming out of ABS cylinder
HAND GRIP CYLINDER
FLUID LINE
ABS SYSTEM DESIGN:
STAGE 2: W/ENCODER
DESIGN COMPONENTS ADDED TO SYSTEM
N.O. SOLENOID
VALVE
BRAKE CALIPERS
N.C. SOLENOID
VALVE
ABS ACTUATOR CYLINDER
LINEAR ENCODER
HAND GRIP CYLINDER
FLUID LINE
ABS SYSTEM DESIGN:
STAGE 3: W/ LINEAR ACTUATOR
DESIGN COMPONENTS ADDED TO SYSTEM
N.O. SOLENOID
VALVE
BRAKE CALIPERS
N.C. SOLENOID
VALVE
ABS ACTUATOR CYLINDER
LINEAR
ACTUATOR/SOLENOID
ABS SYSTEM STAGE 3 TIMING DIAGRAM; PLAN1
FrABS_on
FrBrake_on
FrNOValve
FrNCValve
FrLinAct
ABS SYSTEM STAGE 3 TIMING DIAGRAM; PLAN2
FrABS_on
FrBrake_on
FrNOValve
FrNCValve
FrLinAct
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Advantages of stage three design:
- Guarantee of operation
- More predictable timing
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Disadvantages of stage three design:
- Heavier and more volume
- More costly
- More power required
Design Block 5: Mark Adamak, Actuator and Valve Power/Control, Performance Req.
•Sequential control logic to operate on 5VDC to change operating modes of valves, actuators and control power
circuitry
•Control logic capable of varying switching frequency to valves for testing purposes
•Sequential control logic and power circuit to be located on 7.5 cm3 of circuit board (One circuit board)
•Actuator Valve Performance Characteristics
~ normally closed and normally open solenoid valves capable of operating on 12VDC line
~N.O. valve rated to a pressure differential of 600psi
~N.C. valve rated to a pressure differential of 800psi
~capable of opening and closing 5-10 times per second
~0.75A current draw maximum per valve
~electrically interfaced with power circuit
•Linear Actuator Performance Characteristics (if needed)
~linear actuator capable of running on 12VDC power line
~electrically interfaced with control logic
~capable of providing 10-20 lbs of thrust
~capable of traveling .2-.5” in less than 0.2 seconds
~0.75A current draw maximum
•Chopper drive circuit creation might be used to increase performance of linear actuator (if needed)
Power Allocation Chart
Block
AC Nom
Voltage,
Nom Freq.
AC Max
Current, or
Max Power
DC Nom
Voltage,
Range
DC Max
Current @
Nom
Voltage
Battery : Type, Nom
Voltage, Min life
102 - 132 V
57-63 Hz
56 Watts
10 – 14 V
4A
Nickel Metal Hydride
1.0 – 1.4 V, 500 cycles
2. Control
Logic
5V
0.5 A
3. Sensors
12 V
250 mA
4. Interface
12 V
250 mA
5. Actuator
12V
0.5A
p/Valve
250mA for
Control
1. Power
Supply
Total current demand of all
blocks interfaced to power
supply is 2 A. ( currents for
actuator are multiplied 2X)
General Timetable for Group
•On March 4rd:
Present project definition slides,
•By March 15th:
Complete initial design concepts
•By March 31st/April 1st: Complete design feasibility testing/ begin building circuits/devices
•On April 1st:
Conduct detailed design review with team, peers
•By April 14th:
Have initial prototype circuits/devices built and tested
•By May 1st:
Complete all extra building/testing.
•By May 4th:
Compile and print MS Word document/PowerPoint Presentation of project
•On May 5th:
Conduct dry run of presentation in class
•Week of May 10th:
Present project to staff/sponsors/etc