EMC Test Fundamentals and Nuclear Power

download report

Transcript EMC Test Fundamentals and Nuclear Power

Electromagnetic Compatibility
(EMC)
and
Nuclear Power Facilities
presented by
Washington Laboratories, Ltd.
Steven G. Ferguson
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
1
NRC Regulations
•
Part 50 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal
Regulations (10CFR50): “Domestic Licensing of
Production and Utilization Facilities”
•
•
Structures, systems, and components important to
safety in a nuclear power plant be designed to
accommodate the effects of environmental conditions
(i.e., remain functional under all postulated service
conditions)
design control measures such as testing be used to
check the adequacy of design.
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
2
Safety Functions
•
IEEE Std 379-2000 IEEE Standard Application of the
Single-Failure Criterion to Nuclear Power Generating
Station Safety Systems – Description
•
•
Replaced IEEE Standard (Std) 279, "Criteria for Protection
Systems for Nuclear Power Generating Stations,"
Incorporated in 10 CFR §50.55a(h) of the NRC
regulations
•
provides more specific requirements for the design of
instrumentation and control (I&C) systems performing safety
functions
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
3
Safety Analysis Report
•
•
•
Must be sufficient to confirm that the I&C
systems important to safety are identified with
descriptions of how these systems meet the
appropriate acceptance criteria and guidelines
applicable to them.
SAR descriptions form the licensing design basis
for the plant
http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doccollections/nuregs/staff/sr0800/
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
4
NRC Regulatory Guide 1.180
•
•
Guidelines for Evaluating Electromagnetic and RadioFrequency Interference in Safety-Related
Instrumentation and Control Systems
Revision 1 issued October 2001
•
•
Adopted MIL-STD-461E and IEC 61000 series of test methods
Provides:
•
•
•
•
Regulatory position on EMC
Position on EMI/RFI limiting practices
Position on EMI/RFI emissions and susceptibility testing
Position on SWC testing
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
5
RG1.180 Emission testing
•
MIL-STD-461E
•
•
•
•
•
IEC 61000-6-4
•
•
•
•
•
CE101 Conducted emissions, low-frequency, 30 Hz to 10 kHz
CE102 Conducted emissions, high-frequency, 10 kHz to 2 MHz
RE101 Radiated emissions, magnetic field, 30 Hz to 100 kHz
RE102 Radiated emissions, electric field, 2 MHz to 1 GHz
(None) Conducted emissions, low-frequency, 30 Hz to 10 kHz
CISPR11 Conducted emissions, high-frequency, 150 kHz to 30 MHz
(None) Radiated emissions, magnetic field, 30 Hz to 100 kHz
CISPR11 Radiated emissions, electric field, 30 MHz to 1 GHz
RG1.180 calls for applying one or the other standard – no selective
application
•
Selection of IEC method allowed if special exemption conditions are met
for power quality and proximity to equipment sensitive to magnetic fields
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
6
RG1.180 Susceptibility testing
•
MIL-STD-461E
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
IEC 61000-4
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
CS101 Conducted susceptibility, low frequency, 30 Hz to 150 kHz
CS114 Conducted susceptibility, high frequency, 10 kHz to 30 MHz
CS115 Conducted susceptibility, bulk cable injection, impulse excitation
CS116 Conducted susceptibility, damped sinusoidal transients, 10 kHz to 100 MHz
RS101 Radiated susceptibility, magnetic field, 30 Hz to 100 kHz
RS103 Radiated susceptibility, electric field, 30 MHz to 1 GHz
61000-4-4 Conducted susceptibility, electrically fast transients/bursts
61000-4-5 Conducted susceptibility, surges
61000-4-6 Conducted susceptibility, disturbances induced by radio-frequency fields
61000-4-12 Conducted susceptibility, 100 kHz ring wave
61000-4-13 Conducted susceptibility, low frequency, 16 Hz to 2.4 kHz
61000-4-16 Conducted susceptibility, low frequency, 15 Hz to 150 kHz
61000-4-8 Radiated susceptibility, magnetic field, 50 Hz and 60 Hz
61000-4-9 Radiated susceptibility, magnetic field, 50/60 Hz to 50 kHz
61000-4-10 Radiated susceptibility, magnetic field, 100 kHz and 1 MHz
61000-4-3 Radiated susceptibility, electric field, 26 MHz to 1 GHz
RG1.180 calls for applying one or the other standard – no selective application
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
7
RG 1.180 Surge Withstand Capability
(SWC) testing
•
Ring wave
•
•
•
Combination wave
•
•
•
IEEE Std C62.41-1991
IEC 61000-4-5
Electrically Fast Transients (EFT)
•
•
•
IEEE Std C62.41-1991
IEC 61000-4-12
IEEE Std C62.41-1991
IEC 61000-4-4
IEEE Std C62.45-1992 provides test methods for C62.41
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
8
EPRI TR-102323 R3
•
•
Guidelines for Electromagnetic Interference Testing of
Power Plant Equipment
Revision 3, issued November 2004
•
•
Revision issued to better conform to standard test methods,
investigate CS114 test levels and provide technical rationale for
variance to RG1.180
Provides:
•
•
•
•
Plant emissions data
Practices to ensure EMC
Equipment susceptibility and emissions testing guidance
Margin analysis of recommended testing limits
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
9
EPRI R3 Emission testing
•
Low frequency conducted emissions
•
•
High frequency conducted emissions
•
•
•
•
CE102
IEC 61000-6-4
FCC 47CFR Part 15
Low frequency radiated emissions
•
•
CE101
RE101
High frequency radiated emissions
•
•
•
RE102
IEC 61000-6-4
FCC 47CFR Part 15
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
10
EPRI R3 Susceptibility testing
•
Low frequency conducted
•
•
•
High frequency conducted
•
•
•
•
•
•
CS116
IEC 61000-4-5 and IEC 61000-4-12 or IEEE C62.41-1991
Electrically Fast Transient (EFT)
•
•
•
RS103
IEC 61000-4-3
Surge
•
•
RS101
IEC 61000-4-8, IEC 61000-4-9 and IEC 61000-4-10
High frequency radiated
•
•
CS114
IEC 61000-4-6
Low frequency radiated
•
•
MIL-STD-461E CS101
IEC 61000-4-13 & IEC 61000-4-16
CS115
IEC 61000-4-4 or IEEE C62.41
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)
•
IEC 61000-4-2
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
11
Low frequency conducted emissions
•
•
CE101, 30 Hz – 10 kHz (AC start frequency = 2nd
harmonic)
Exempt equipment from test if
•
•
•
•
Measurement in current terms
Limit relaxation allowed for high current AC power
•
•
Power quality requirements are consistent with existing power
supply and design practices include power quality controls
New equipment will not impose additional harmonic distortion
exceeding 5% THD or other power quality criteria with a valid
technical basis
EPRI does not limit relaxation to AC
RG1.180 & EPRI R3 testing the same – limits are
different
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
12
High frequency conducted emissions
•
RG1.180
•
•
•
•
CE102, 10 kHz to 2 MHz
CISPR 11, 150 kHz to 30 MHz (if CE101 is exempt)
Measurement in voltage terms
EPRI R3
•
•
•
CE102, 10 kHz to 10 MHz
CISPR 11, 150 kHz to 30 MHz
Measurement in current terms (voltage to current
based on 50W)
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
13
Low frequency radiated emissions
•
•
•
RE101, 30 Hz – 100 kHz
Applicable to enclosures and interconnecting leads
Exempt equipment from test if
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
RG1.180 - Equipment is not installed in areas with equipment sensitive
to magnetic fields – distance not specified
EPRI R3 – Applicable to new equipment that is a source of large
magnetic fields (>300A/m) installed <1m from sensitive equipment
EPRI R3 - Equipment and cable separation of EMI limiting requirements
are not satisfied
Measurement in flux density terms
RG1.180 & EPRI R3 testing the same – limits are different
Testing performed with loop antenna moved over equipment face
and cables maintaining 7cm separation
If non-compliant a determination of the distance for compliant should
be accomplished
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
14
High frequency radiated emissions
•
RG1.180
•
•
•
RE102, 2 MHz to 1 GHz
CISPR 11, 30 MHz – 1 GHz
EPRI R3
•
•
•
RE102, 2 MHz to 10 GHz
CISPR 11, 30 MHz to 1 GHz
FCC 47 Part 15, 30 MHz to 1 GHz
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
15
High frequency radiated emission limits/testing
•
•
•
QP measurements for CISPR and FCC
EPRI calls for CIPSR/FCC testing to 5X highest frequency up to 10 GHz but no limit defined
Testing is accomplished with an appropriate antenna located at the specified distance – receiver parameters
defined in the test standard
R E 1 0 2 , F C C , C IS P R
RG 1.180 1M
FCC 10M
EPRI R3 1M
CISPR 30M
100
90
dB uV /m
80
70
60
2. 0E+ 6
59
25. 0E+ 6
30. 0E+ 6
59
44
39
88. 0E+ 6
39
88. 0E+ 6
216. 0E+ 6
44
44
216. 0E+ 6
46
230. 0E+ 6
50
30
230. 0E+ 6
37
960. 0E+ 6
40
46
960. 0E+ 6
10. 0E+ 6
1. 0E+ 9
30
30
50
44
72
37
10. 0E+ 9
18. 0E+ 9
20
1.0E+6
10.0E+6
100.0E+6
1.0E+9
10.0E+9
89
100.0E+9
F re q ue ncy (H z)
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
16
Low frequency conducted susceptibility
•
•
Purpose is to evaluate performance in the presence of
low frequency interference conducted via the power or
signal lines
MIL-STD-461E
•
•
CS101, Conducted susceptibility, low frequency, 30 Hz to 150
kHz
IEC 61000-4
•
•
IEC 61000-4-13, Conducted susceptibility, low frequency, 16 Hz
to 2.4 kHz
IEC 61000-4-16, Conducted susceptibility, low frequency, 15 Hz
to 150 kHz
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
17
Low frequency conducted susceptibility limits/testing
•
CS101
•
•
•
•
•
•
IEC 61000-4-13
•
•
•
•
•
•
Low frequency sinusoidal signals are used to modulate the power lines to simulate
interference
Prior to test a maximum drive level is establish with a fixed load
The interfering signal is coupled to the power input and the amplitude increased to the test
voltage without exceeding the maximum drive level
The test frequency range is swept at a defined rate
RG1.180 and EPRI have the same limit although EPRI is specified in current terms
Low frequency sinusoidal signals are used to modulate the power lines to simulate
interference
Coupling is typically by use of a programmable power source that is programmed for the
specific test frequencies and amplitude
RG1.180 provides a test limit table for harmonic frequencies correlated to Class 2 of the
standard omitting the inter-harmonic testing
EPRI calls for Class 2 testing implying that the inter-harmonic testing of the test standard is
applicable
The limit chart in EPRI R3 is inadequate to determine the test levels so the test standard is
preferred
IEC 61000-4-16
•
•
•
•
Low frequency sinusoidal signals are coupled to the power and signal lines (capacitively
coupled or direct injection)
IEC 61000-4-13, Conducted susceptibility, low frequency, 16 Hz to 2.4 kHz
Level 3 is called out by both RG1.180 and EPRI R3 – however the test level curves are not
the same
EPRI R3 does not specify the short duration high level test.
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
18
High frequency conducted susceptibility
•
•
Purpose is to evaluate performance in the
presence of RF signals inducing currents into
the equipment via the cables
MIL-STD-461E
•
•
CS114, Conducted susceptibility, high frequency, 10
kHz to 30 MHz
IEC 61000-4
•
IEC 61000-4-6, Conducted susceptibility, 150 kHz to
80 MHz, disturbances induced by radio-frequency
fields
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
19
RG1.180, High frequency conducted susceptibility limits
•
Two IEC 61000-4-6 limits are provided
•
•
•
•
140dBmV (10Vrms) for power and medium exposure signal lines (96.5dBmA)
130dBmV (3Vrms) for low exposure signal lines (86.5dBmA)
Frequency range is not defined so the 150 kHz to 80 MHz range from the test standard is normally assumed
A pre-calibrated forward power limit (drive level) is applicable if the current is not attained
R G 1 .1 8 0 , C S 1 1 4
Pow er
Signal
10.0 E+ 3
200.0 E+ 3
100
100
200.0 E+ 3
30.0 E+ 6
97
97
91
91
110
105
dBuA
100
95
90
85
80
10.0E+3
100.0E+3
1.0E+6
10.0E+6
100.0E+6
Fr equenc y ( Hz )
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
20
EPRI R3, High frequency conducted susceptibility limits
•
•
•
CS114 testing between 30 MHz and 200 MHz may be exempted if RS103 is accomplished
EPRI states that use of the Army Ground Applications test level is acceptable but the limit is
shown incorrectly – which applies
A pre-calibrated forward power limit (drive level) is applicable if the current is not attained
TR 102323 R3
CS114 Cur v e 3
IEC 61000- 4- 6
10. 0E + 3
49
150. 0E + 3
97
1. 0E + 6
89
30. 0E + 6
89
80. 0E + 6
200. 0E + 6
97
81
100
90
dBuA
80
70
60
50
40
1 0 .0 E + 3
1 0 0 .0 E + 3
1 .0 E + 6
1 0 .0 E + 6
1 0 0 .0 E + 6
1 .0 E + 9
Fre q u e n cy (H z)
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
21
Electrically Fast Transients/Bursts (EFT)
•
RG1.180
•
•
•
•
•
CS115, Conducted susceptibility, bulk cable injection, impulse
excitation
IEC 61000-4-4, Electrically Fast Transient/Bursts
Applicability to signal lines
Applicable to power lines under the SWC testing – allows use of
C62.41-1991
EPRI R3
•
•
Same tests as RG1.180 but different levels and applicable to
power and signal
CS115 is listed but the limit is not stated – 5A is implied under
the listing of differences between ERPI R3 and RG1.180
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
22
EFT limits/testing
•
CS115 uses a pre-calibrated test current using a fixed load test
fixture then interference is applied that drive level
•
•
•
•
IEC 61000-4-4 uses an open circuit voltage that is applied to the
circuit
•
•
•
•
•
RG1.180 – 2A
EPRI R3 – 5A
Interference is coupled inductively – current injection
RG1.180 – 1kV (low exposure), 2kV (medium exposure) for signal lines
RG1,180 – 2kV (low exposure), 4kV (medium exposure) for power lines
(SWC)
EPRI R3 – 2kV power lines; 1kV signal lines (2kV for lines that connect
to unsuppressed inductive loads)
Interference is coupled capacitively – voltage injection
Common mode and differential mode testing is not discussed
although both test standards have provisions for testing
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
23
Surge
•
RG1.180
•
•
•
•
•
•
EPRI R3
•
•
•
•
•
CS116, Conducted susceptibility, damped sinusoidal transients, 10 kHz to 100
MHz or
IEC 61000-4-5, Surge immunity test (combination wave) and
IEC 61000-4-12, Oscillatory waves immunity test
Applicability to signal lines
Applicable to power lines under the SWC testing – allows use of C62.41-1991
Same tests as RG1.180 but different levels and applicable to power and signal
RG1.180 defines 4-12 test as ring wave and EPRI R3 provides for a repetition
frequency for the oscillating wave
CS116 is listed but the not recommended
Oscillating wave specified rise time; \ Damped Oscillatory vs. Ring Wave
Test duration
•
•
•
•
CS116 calls for duration and pulse repetition rate
4-5 combination wave test uses a number of repetitions
4-12 ring wave test uses a number of repetitions
4-12 oscillating wave uses a repetition frequency and duration
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
24
Surge limits/testing
•
CS116 uses a pre-calibrated test current using a fixed load test fixture then
interference is applied as lesser of test current or drive level
•
•
•
•
IEC 61000-4-5 uses an open circuit voltage that is applied to the circuit (current
limiting is applicable)
•
•
•
•
•
RG1.180 – 1kV (low exposure), 2kV (medium exposure) for signal lines
RG1,180 – 2kV (low exposure), 4kV (medium exposure), 6kV (external) for power lines
(SWC)
EPRI R3 – 2kV secondary power lines; 4kV primary power lines; 2kV signal line shields and
remote grounds
Interference is coupled capacitively – voltage injection
IEC 61000-4-12 uses an open circuit voltage that is applied to the circuit (current
limiting is applicable)
•
•
•
•
•
RG1.180 – 5A
EPRI R3 – no limit stated (allows but does not recommend CS116)
Interference is coupled inductively – current injection
RG1.180 – 1kV (low exposure), 2kV (medium exposure) for signal lines
RG1,180 – 2kV (low exposure), 4kV (medium exposure) for power lines (SWC)
EPRI R3 – 2kV secondary power lines; 4kV primary power lines; 2kV signal line shields and
remote grounds
Interference is coupled capacitively – voltage injection
Common mode and differential mode testing is not discussed although both test
standards have provisions for testing
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
25
Low frequency radiated susceptibility
(magnetic field)
•
Exempt test if equipment is not near sources of large magnetic fields
and limiting practices are used
•
•
•
RG1.180 indicates CRTs, motors, high current cables as large sources
EPRI R3 indicates <1-m from >300A/m sources
Test methods:
•
•
•
•
RS101, Radiated susceptibility, magnetic field, 30 Hz to 100 kHz
IEC 61000-4-8, Radiated susceptibility, magnetic field, 50 Hz and 60 Hz
IEC 61000-4-9, Radiated susceptibility, magnetic field, 50/60 Hz to 50
kHz
IEC 61000-4-10, Radiated susceptibility, magnetic field, 100 kHz and 1
MHz
•
IEC 61000-4-10 has additional limiting applicability to high current switching
sources (bus bar switching) in EPRI R3
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
26
Low frequency radiated susceptibility limits/testing
•
RS101
•
•
IEC 61000-4-8
•
•
•
RG1.180 and EPRI R3 indicate a frequency range for the test but standard is
based on a pulse
Pulse 6.4/16mS, 300A/m (172dBpT)
IEC 61000-4-10
•
•
•
50 or 60 Hz sine wave, 30 A/m (152dBpT) continuous (300 A/m (172dBpT) short
duration)
IEC 61000-4-9
•
•
MIL-STD-461E Army limit (flux density terms)
Damped oscillatory wave 100 kHz (40 Hz repetition) and 1 MHz (400 Hz
repetition)
Test level is 30A/m (152dBpT)
Testing is performed with an induction coil adjacent to test article or coil
surrounding the test article depending on test
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
27
High frequency radiated susceptibility
(electric field)
•
MIL-STD-461E, Radiated susceptibility, electric field, 30 MHz to 1
GHz (10 GHz EPRI)
•
•
IEC 61000-4-3, Radiated susceptibility, electric field, 26 MHz to 1
GHz
•
•
Modulation with a 1 kHz square wave
Modulation with a 1 kHz sine wave
RG1.180 and EPRI R3 call for the same tests and levels
•
•
•
EPRI adds testing for RS103 in the 10 kHz to 30 MHz frequency range
if CS114 is not performed
EPRI supports deletion of 30 MHz to 80 MHz if IEC 61000-4-6 testing is
performed
EPRI calls for testing above 1 GHz for evaluation of wireless device
interference
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
28
High frequency radiated susceptibility
limits/testing
•
•
•
•
•
RG1.180 and EPRI specify 10V/m test levels
Test frequency range based on test method and other testing as
stated previously
Modulation is not consistent between standards
Testing at frequencies between 1 GHz and 10 GHz is becoming the
normal
Testing is accomplished with a radiating antenna producing the test
field
•
•
•
•
MIL-STD-461E testing calls for use of field probe to measure test level
during test
IEC 61000-4-3 testing supports testing with a uniform field calibrated
prior to test
Use of an anechoic shielded enclosure is standard
Antenna placement may be varied to broaden the beamwidth coverage
but test article must see exposure
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
29
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)
•
•
Not specified in RG1.180
Optional in EPRI R3
•
•
•
IEC 61000-4-2 is the test standard
Level 4 testing (8kV contact; 15kV air)
Test points selected based on accessibility
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
30
Tailoring testing
•
Understand the test article use and installation to assess applicable tests
•
•
Items not exposed to high magnetic fields are exempt for the associated
susceptibility tests
Look as the applicability tables in the standards
•
•
•
•
Why tailor?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Required – indicates test is always applicable
Evaluate – determine applicability based on use and criticality
Optional – used when impact is minimal or control measure negate the need
Cost and schedule drivers
Testing cost is somewhat elevated by performing unnecessary tests
Recurring cost to add unnecessary control measures may be significant
Installation practices may be a significant cost driver to provide unnecessary
control measures
Not advocate of deleting tests – operational down-time from EMI is an on-going
cost that specifying control measures can mitigate
Test planning should consider the application instead of blindly calling for
doing all potential tests
Wide usage equipment may elect to do all testing for all standards
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
31
Acceptance criteria
•
•
•
Acceptance criteria provided earlier is not
supported by RG1.180 or EPRI R3
SWC testing of RG1.180 specifies that
performance criteria be established in the test
plan
Open door testing is frequently called on for
equipment that must operate during
maintenance – test planning should consider
acceptance with closed doors if reasonable
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
32
Threshold measurements
•
Threshold measurements provide data on the amplitude and
frequency of interference that produces susceptibility
•
•
•
•
Threshold measurements
•
•
•
•
•
This is the lowest level that produces unacceptable results
Frequency ranges of susceptibility need to be identified
Test procedure needs to identify measurements of susceptibility
Reduce interference level for test article recovery
Reduce an additional 6dB
Increase amplitude to point of susceptibility
Record that measurement
Why?
•
•
Absence of information makes acceptance of a deviation nearly
impossible
Solutions need the data to support design
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
33
Contact
•
Contact:
Steve Ferguson: [email protected]
Washington Laboratories, Ltd.
7560 Lindbergh Drive
Gaithersburg, MD 20879
301/216-1500: fax: 301/216-1590
www.wll.com
Copyright 2011; Washington Laboratories, Ltd | http://www.wll.com
34