Low Voltage Sequential Circuit With a Ring Oscillator Clock

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Transcript Low Voltage Sequential Circuit With a Ring Oscillator Clock

Low Voltage Sequential Circuit
With a Ring Oscillator Clock
ELEC 6270 Low power design of Electronic Circuits
Spring, 2009
Presented by Mridula Allani
Under the guidance of Dr. Vishwani Agrawal
Dynamic Voltage and Frequency
Scaling
• Power Dissipation in electronic circuits.
Ptotal  pt  (CL Vdd 2  fCLK ) + ISC  Vdd  Ileak  Vd
• The total power dissipation varies linearly with clock
frequency and quadratically with supply voltage.
• In idle periods a microprocessor is optimized to run at a lowvoltage and less than maximum speed to save power.
• Generally, a power management unit controls this operation
and reduces the Vdd and fclk after detecting an idle state.
• Having an internally generated clock for such designs will
decrease the burden on the power-management unit and
save clock power .
2
Globally Asynchronous and Locally
Synchronous Architecture
Sequential
Sequential
Asynchronous Protocol Driven Communication
Clock
Generator
Clock
Generator
• Power dissipation due to clock (appx. 40% of total) can be reduced
using such architecture by designing clocks suitable for the local logic
blocks.
3
Project Overview
In_reg1
clear
Sequence Generator
(Binary Counter)
In_reg2
count_enable
Input
Registers
Combinational
Logic (Ripple
Adder)
sum_out
Output
Registers
cry_out
cry_in
ring_clock
set
Ring Oscillator
Clock Distribution
Network
ENTITY local_synch IS
PORT
(set, clear, count_enable: IN STD_LOGIC;
cry_out : OUT STD_LOGIC;
sum_out: OUT STD_LOGIC_VECTOR( 3 DOWNTO 0 ));
END local_synch;
4
Design Considerations
• Ripple adder critical path delay = clock period of the ring oscillator.
Td = n*(tpHL + tpLH) = 1/fclk
tpHL, tpLH respectively are the fall and rise times of a single inverter
Td critical delay of the ripple adder
n = number of inverters in a ring oscillator and is odd
fclk frequency of the ring oscillator
• Assume the propagation delay for the high-to-low or low-to-high
transitions of an inverter to be equal.
tpHL + tpLH = 2*Tinv
Td = n* 2*Tinv = 1/fclk
Tinv is the inverter delay
• Delays are calculated as the time between the 50% point of the input
waveform and the 50% point of the output waveform.
5
Objectives
• Design a ring oscillator clock to meet the critical path delay
of the ripple adder.
• Observe the variation in clock frequency of the ring
oscillator with supply voltage and compare with the
theoretical values.
• Design a clock distribution network to distribute the clock
generated by ring oscillator.
• Design a binary counter to supply input vectors to the
ripple adder.
• Observe the variation of the average and peak powers and
the delay of the complete system with supply voltage.
• Find the optimum operation condition for the system from
the power delay product.
6
Tools Used
• ModelSim SE for behavioral modeling of the
blocks.
• Leonardo Spectrum for gate-level synthesis.
• Design Architect for transistor-level synthesis.
• Eldo Spice for voltage, delay, power and
critical path delay.
• ADK tsmc018 technology file for 0.18 um
models.
7
Experimental Results
• Schematic Diagram of the Whole System
8
Experimental Results
• Inverter
Average
Power (uW) Maximum
Voltage (V)
Power (uW)
1.8
36.2283
134.6928
• Ring
Delay(ps)
Oscillator
Average
Energy =
Power Maximum
Power /
Voltage
Clock
(uW)
Power Delay(ns Clock Energy*
(V)
Frequency
(uW)
)
frequenc Delay(E(GHz)
y(fJ)
24Js)
10.66338
1.8
0.5588
321.4063 413.1771 1.78947 575.172 1029.21
1.6
0.5071
216.509
1.4
0.4107
287.3531 1.97193 426.955 841.913
797.456
134.5032 182.2995 2.435 327.497
3
1.2
0.33023
73.6066
1.6
25.3686
95.0667
12.91967
1.4
17.1228
54.9572
17.03383
1.2
11.5631
37.004
23.38268
1.0
7.9412
23.5385
31.57895
0.8
7.9287
23.8102
55.85586
0.6
6.211
8.1721
128.6984
0.6
0.4
3.0039
0.194451
400.7
0.4
0.2
0.274565
0.000531
395541.6
0.2
1.0
0.8
109.5668 3.02817 222.895 674.948
151.479
0.2212
33.5073 63.5944 4.5211
7
684.855
892.950
0.1055
9.9393
20.1049 9.4782 94.211
7
3201.91
0.0168 0.9035546 7.8281 59.5348 53.783
78
50916.0
4.842E-04 0.0119375 0.117383 2065.22 24.654
75
4.54174E178260.
1443163
5.61E-06
05
0.000355
87
8.0958
.144
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Experimental Results
Energy*Delay (Ring Oscillator )
3500
3000
2500
2000
Energy*Delay (Ring Oscillator )
1500
1000
500
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
• From the graph, the optimum operation point is at VDD = 1V.
10
Theoretical Verification of Dependence of Voltage
Scaling on the Frequency of Ring Oscillator
• Variation of frequency with the supply voltage is given by the αpower law, given by
(VDD – Vth)α
f =k ×
───────
α
VDD
•VDD is the supply voltage, Vth is the zero-bias threshold voltage, f
is the clock frequency, k and α are constants.
• Typical Vth for 0.18 um technology is 0.3932V.
• ‘k’ and ‘α’ are calculated from the VDD and f values obtained
for 1.8V and 1.6V supply voltage experimentally.
• k = 1.097 G and α = 2.74
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Comparison of Observed and Calculated
Frequencies of Ring Oscillator
•The experimental results obtained for the remaining voltage
1.4V to 0.2 V in steps of 0.2V are compared to the theoretical
results and are tabulated as follows.
Observed Clock Frequency
Theoretical Clock Frequency
.
Voltage (V)
(GHz)
(GHz)
1.4
0.4107
0.4445
1.2
0.33023
0.3697
1.0
0.2212
0.2791
0.8
0.1055
0.1720
0.6
0.0168
0.0593
0.4
4.842E-04
0.1555E-04
0.2
5.61E-06
undefined
•We observe that the calculated frequencies are found to be
close to the theoretical results in almost all cases, but do not
match the observed frequencies near and below threshold
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voltages.
Experimental Results
• Ripple
Voltage
(V)
1.8
1.6
• Complete
Adder
Average Maximu
Power m Power Critical
Average
(uW)
(uW) Delay(ns) Power*Del
ay
6.284
4.8427
928.2791
636.8054
1.0781
1.24825
System
Clock
Average
Voltage (V) Frequency Power (uW)
(GHz)
Maximum
Power
Critical
(uW)
Delay(ns)
Critical
Delay of
Ripple
Adder(ns)
6.775
1.8
0.5588
1.6
0.5071
1.4
0.4107
1.2
0.33023
1.0
0.2212
0.8
0.1055
0.6
0.0168
6.045
1.4
3.5987
413.6859
1.51913
5.467
1.2
2.5949
272.8673
2.00965
5.2148
1.0
1.7407
179.5037
3.02571
5.2668
0.8
1.0849
56.7458
6.19
6.7155
0.6
0.562447
16.7108
35.187
19.79
0.4
0.031435 0.431696
1456.19
45.775
0.4
4.842E-04
0.2
0.000582 0.001475
105682.1
61.506
0.2
5.61E-06
13
Experimental Results
Power*Delay (Ripple Carry Adder)
70
60
50
40
Power*Delay (Ripple Carry Adder)
30
20
10
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
• From the graph, the optimum operation point is at VDD = 1V.
14
Conclusions
• The power-delay product of the ring oscillator
was monotonically decreasing, but its energydelay product had a minimum at 1V supply
voltage.
• The power-delay product of ripple carry adder
is minimum at 1V supply voltage.
• Thus, VDD = 1V is the optimum supply voltage.
• The whole system could not be simulated due
to convergence errors in ELDO.
15
Future Work
• The convergence errors need to be resolved.
• This experiment has to be repeated for high
leakage technologies and similar trends need
to be compared.
16
References
• Dr Agrawal’s class slides for ELEC6270, Spring
2009.
• Power Management and Dynamic Voltage
Scaling: Myths and Facts, David Snowdon,
Sergio Ruocco and Gernot Heiser
• A Deterministic Globally Asynchronous Locally
Synchronous Microprocessor Architecture,
Matthew Heath and Ian Harris
• http://www.wikipedia.org/
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