HU245 Ethics

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Transcript HU245 Ethics

Unit Eight Seminar
Animal Rights
Old Business!
Welcome Back! Only one seminar
remaining!
 Unit 7 Papers

New Business!
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Unit Eight Discussion Board
 How, and to what extent should the concerns
about the ethics of factory farming influence
Andy Stewart's choice?
How, and to what extent, should ecological
concerns about energy and resource
consumption influence Andy Stewart's choice
 How, and to what extent, should debates about
the moral status of animals influence Andy
Stewart's choice?
Seminar Question 1
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Which Environmental Theory?
Land Ethic
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Presented by Aldo Leopold
Argues that the “land” encompasses the
entire natural world.
Argues humans are part of not only a
natural order in nature but an ethical
system as well.
Thus, ethics is extended to nature as well
as to other humans.
Ultimate goal is to preserve integrity and
beauty of nature.
Sentientist Ethics
Applies moral worth to conscious beings
such as animals but not plants.
 Considers the ability to feel pain and
emotions as the foundation for rights.
 Animals should only be harmed when
basic human needs are at risk.
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Biocentric Ethics
Extends moral value to all living things.
 This includes nonsentient animals and
plants.
 Interests of living things are considered
along with human interests and weighed
against the interests of all other living
things.
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Ecofeminism
Argues that the degradation of the
environment is the fault of men and
patriarchal society.
 Sexism and environmental abuses
share a common cause and thus only
feminism can help address both
problems.
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Anthropocentrism
The most common approach to
environmental ethics in history.
 Sees the natural world as a resource for
humans.
 Arguments are made for conservation,
stewardship, and management of the
environment from all ethical perspectives.
 Care for environment is seen as being
essential for the wellbeing of humanity and
future generations.
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Common Arguments for
Anthropocentric Views
Humans are highest form in nature.
 Humans granted dominance by God.
 Humans granted dominance by
evolution.
 Humans can reason more than animals.
 Human civilization is more important
than nature.
 Morality is a human concept and thus
only exists in the human world.
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Deep Ecology
Developed by Arne Naess.
 Considers the interests of nature to be
beyond the interests of humans.
 Argues for drastic reduction in human
population.
 Rejects utilitarian views of
environmentalism as well as
stewardship views of traditional religion.
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Ethical Philosophies for Animal Rights
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Utilitarian: Question of pleasure/pain
equation. Using animals causes them
more pain and thus violates the principle
of utilitarianism (Peter Singer’s
argument).
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Is this really the result of the calculation?
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Kantian Rights: Animals have moral
worth and value and thus should be
granted rights just as humans are
granted rights (Tom Regan’s view).
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If animals have moral worth does it
follow that they should have rights just
as humans do?
Conflict of Rights
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Does the Right of Humans outweigh the
Rights of Animals? Why or why not?
For Science?
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Is it right to use animals for testing
medicines that can save human lives?
For Food?
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Is it right to use animals as a food
source?
For Entertainment?
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Is it right to harm animals for the
pleasure of human entertainment
(hunting, rodeos, bull fighting, ect.)?
How do we Determine Animal Rights?
Why do we care more about more
complex and more “human” like animals
than we do other less complex
creatures?
 Do we assign rights based on human
wants and desires?
 If not, on what basis are they
“assigned?”
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Thank You and Goodnight!