Transcript HU245 Ethics
Unit Eight Seminar Animal Rights Old Business! Welcome Back! Only one seminar remaining! Unit 7 Papers New Business! Unit Eight Discussion Board How, and to what extent should the concerns about the ethics of factory farming influence Andy Stewart's choice? How, and to what extent, should ecological concerns about energy and resource consumption influence Andy Stewart's choice How, and to what extent, should debates about the moral status of animals influence Andy Stewart's choice? Seminar Question 1 Which Environmental Theory? Land Ethic Presented by Aldo Leopold Argues that the “land” encompasses the entire natural world. Argues humans are part of not only a natural order in nature but an ethical system as well. Thus, ethics is extended to nature as well as to other humans. Ultimate goal is to preserve integrity and beauty of nature. Sentientist Ethics Applies moral worth to conscious beings such as animals but not plants. Considers the ability to feel pain and emotions as the foundation for rights. Animals should only be harmed when basic human needs are at risk. Biocentric Ethics Extends moral value to all living things. This includes nonsentient animals and plants. Interests of living things are considered along with human interests and weighed against the interests of all other living things. Ecofeminism Argues that the degradation of the environment is the fault of men and patriarchal society. Sexism and environmental abuses share a common cause and thus only feminism can help address both problems. Anthropocentrism The most common approach to environmental ethics in history. Sees the natural world as a resource for humans. Arguments are made for conservation, stewardship, and management of the environment from all ethical perspectives. Care for environment is seen as being essential for the wellbeing of humanity and future generations. Common Arguments for Anthropocentric Views Humans are highest form in nature. Humans granted dominance by God. Humans granted dominance by evolution. Humans can reason more than animals. Human civilization is more important than nature. Morality is a human concept and thus only exists in the human world. Deep Ecology Developed by Arne Naess. Considers the interests of nature to be beyond the interests of humans. Argues for drastic reduction in human population. Rejects utilitarian views of environmentalism as well as stewardship views of traditional religion. Ethical Philosophies for Animal Rights Utilitarian: Question of pleasure/pain equation. Using animals causes them more pain and thus violates the principle of utilitarianism (Peter Singer’s argument). Is this really the result of the calculation? Kantian Rights: Animals have moral worth and value and thus should be granted rights just as humans are granted rights (Tom Regan’s view). If animals have moral worth does it follow that they should have rights just as humans do? Conflict of Rights Does the Right of Humans outweigh the Rights of Animals? Why or why not? For Science? Is it right to use animals for testing medicines that can save human lives? For Food? Is it right to use animals as a food source? For Entertainment? Is it right to harm animals for the pleasure of human entertainment (hunting, rodeos, bull fighting, ect.)? How do we Determine Animal Rights? Why do we care more about more complex and more “human” like animals than we do other less complex creatures? Do we assign rights based on human wants and desires? If not, on what basis are they “assigned?” Thank You and Goodnight!