Transcript Oct. 4-11 Morale awareness
419 Individual #5 Morale awareness • Recognition of an moral/ethical dilemma. • If recognize awareness of ethical issues more likely to act with a higher sense of ethics. If not— just act expediently. Purpose of the course is in part • Increase moral awareness. Within the past week • Were you aware of an ethical choice you needed to make. They can be major or minor. Factors the increase moral awareness • Peer influence • If presented in a manner that warrants ethical consideration. What words are used to phrase. Concerned, integrity, etc. • Serious harm/damage/legal concerns. • Example from business, personal. Moral Awareness and moral Development • Kohlberg suggests that our moral awareness tends to increase as we age. Especially during the earlier years of lives. • Everyone has a sense of morale awareness, just different levels of awareness. Even a 4 year child has some moral awareness. Preconventional • Actions influenced by consequences. Do things based on the amount of good or bad consequences happening to you. Often linked to people in positions of authority. Can be • Level 1. Punishment or obedience orientation. Get caught orientation. • Level 2. Instrumental or exchange orientation. Need to do X in order to have Y happen or not happen which good/bad. • Just world and good things happen to good people. Conventional Level • Typically more complex and often relevant starting in the teens. Many of you are sensitive to this type of morality. Conformity to the social order • “When in Rome do as the Romans do” • Reasons why we have speed limits. What are they? For the good of the whole we follow these rules. Not an issue of getting caught (pre-conventional) unless you have a radar detector. Level 3 • Interpersonal concordance. Focus is on good behavior that helps others. For example, not mentioning the truth about a woman’s hair style. Good example of values/Ethics. • The person meant well or did not mean to act badly. Infer if intentions were meant to help or hurt others. • Many wrong doers use this type of morality. • Guided by guilt/social approval Level 4 • Law and order. • Rules are rules. Even if bad rules still follow the rules. Maintaining the existing social order is fine. • Examples 1950’s in the South. Many people did not like the segregation rules—but the rules were the rules and abide by them. • The typical “organizationally loyal employee”. • Honor or duty. Post-Coventional. • Stage 5. Similar to stage 4 but law is the idea of a social contract that can and should be changed. Laws have purposes. When purposes are not served, laws can be changed. Outside of legal issues, ethics entails volition. Giving people the choice to follow their beliefs. • Ethics is relativistic. • Not many adults get to this stage. Stage 6 • Universal Ethics/Principles. • Kantian imperative—do the right thing (Deontological perspective). • Very individualistic—but still Guided by inner judgment of right/wrong. Abortion both sides Universal. Just different Principles. Thus Ethics based on orientation. • • • • • • Get caught Expecting just rewards/punishments Social approval/disapproval Laws Social contract/volition Higher order ethics. DIT. Some implications • First, Majority of adults are 3-4. They tend to look around and see what the rules are. • If everyone else is doing something it must be OK. • Does anyone see problems with this? • Breaking the rules. • Most people look around. It’s a warning. • Ethical lapses in business. Does Business have problems with • Post conventional—why or why not? Failures in Moral Awareness • As mentioned earlier speed is important in business. But its more than that. • Faults of the decision making process. • Scripts—Lots of information and try to rountinize decisions. When a student asks for a make up exam—I have a standard response. Scripts have their positive attributes. • However, if information does not fit a script—you ignore it rather than process it more deeply. • Do you see red flags, yellow flags. • Cost benefit analysis. Especially short term. • Foreign labor/Child labor. • Wohlfords new mall. Getting the facts • Groupthink: Illusions of morality. Minimizing ethical risks. • Won’t get caught mentality. Won’t happen to us. Challenger shuttle. Classic case. • Video.