REVIEW OF MORAL THEORY

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Transcript REVIEW OF MORAL THEORY

REVIEW OF
MORAL THEORY
Moral Rules/Ideals and
Principles of Professional
Ethics
Morality arises when
people are brought to
accept that rules are
necessary for social
living.
THE SOCIAL
CONTRACT
Set of rules, determining how
people are to treat one another,
that rational people will agree to
accept, for their mutual benefit,
on the condition that others will
follow the rules as well.
THE MORAL RULES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Don’t Kill
Don’t Cause Pain
Don’t Disable
Don’t Deprive of Freedom
Don’t Deprive of Pleasure
Don’t Deceive
Keep Your Promise
Don’t Cheat
Obey the Law
Do Your Duty
MORAL RULES
SUMMARIZED:
“DON’T CAUSE
EVIL”
MORAL RULES
UNIVERSAL
versus
ABSOLUTE
THE MORAL
ATTITUDE
“Everyone is always to obey the
rule unless impartial, rational
people can advocate that the
behavior be generally permitted
for all under similar
situations.”
MORAL IDEALS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Prevent Killing
Prevent the Cause of Pain
Prevent Disabling
Prevent the Deprivation of
Freedom
Prevent the Deprivation of
Pleasure
Prevent Deceit
Prevent the Breaking of
Promises
Prevent Cheating
Prevent the Breaking of the
Law
Prevent the Neglect of Duty
MORAL IDEALS
“Prevent Evil”
PROFESSIONAL
ETHICS IN
DENTISTRY BASED
ON THE MORAL
RULE
“Do Your Duty”
THE DUTIES OF
DENTISTS ?
1.What counts in dentistry as
causing harm, that is, violating a
moral rule?
2.What counts in dentistry as
avoiding the causing of harm,
the violating of a moral rule?
3.What counts in dentistry as
preventing harm, that is,
keeping the moral ideals?
THE TROIKA OF
PRINCIPLES OF
PROFESSIONAL
ETHICS
• Beneficence
• Respect for Autonomy
• Justice
BENEFICENCE
HIPPOCRATIC OATH
“I will use treatment to
help the sick according to
my ability and judgment,
but I will never use it to
injure or wrong them.”
SERVICE TO THE
PUBLIC AND
QUALITY OF CARE
The dentist’s primary professional
obligation shall be service to the
public. The competent and timely
delivery of quality care within the
bounds of the clinical circumstances
presented by the patient, with due
consideration being given to the needs
and desires of the patient, shall be the
most important aspect of that
obligation.
Principle 1
ADA Code of Ethics
CONTINUUM OF
BENEFICENCE
Promote Good
Prevent Evil or Harm
Remove Evil or Harm
Do Not Cause Evil or Harm
(Non-maleficence)
RESPECT FOR
AUTONOMY
TWO FACETS OF
JUSTICE
1. “Each person is to have an equal
right to the most extensive liberty
compatible with a similar liberty for
others - giving to each his/her right
or due.”
--Justice as Fairness --
2. “Social and economic inequities are
to be arranged so that they are both:
– Reasonably expected to be
everyone’s advantage, and
– Attached to positions and offices
open to all.”
--Social Justice --
FAIRNESS IN CARE
“Giving to each
his/her
right or due”
TREATING
PATIENTS FAIRLY
… Issues of Quality Care
SOCIAL JUSTICE
Refers to the Justified
Distribution of Benefits
and Burdens of Society