Transcript Middle Adulthood Ages 40-65
Middle Adulthood Ages 40-65 Physical Qualities and Changes • During middle adult years, reproductive capacity declines or is lost for both men and women, which is climacteric. • For men, a decrease occurs as the male hormone testosterone declines. • Women experience a decrease in estrogen and progesterone. • The first stage of reduced fertility is called perimenopause. • Eventually, women reach menopause and can no longer reproduce. Phyical Qualities and Changes • One of the first observed sensory changes is diminished hearing. • Loss of visual acuity, or visions sharpness is more noticeable especially up close. • Muscle mass and strength is reduced and fat tissue increase. • Many adults may feel stiffness in their bones. • Calcium deficiency causes bones to become brittle and less dense (osteoporosis) • Physical activity can slow or reverse many of these changes. • As physical abilities decline, good nutrition and regular physical activity are important. • The average person will gain 10 to 20 pounds during middle age without some change in diet and activity. Physical Qualities and Changes • Continue to need between 7 and 9 hours of sleep each night. • Symptoms from inadequate sleep may include the reduced ability to concentrate, solve problems and be productive. • Regular health, eye and dental examines are recommended. • Chronic diseases overtake accidents as the leading cause of death. Cancer is the leading cause of death and heart disease is the second. • Chronic diseases (like diabetes and arthritis) usually start slowly and last for years, if not a lifetime. Signs of Cognitive Change • Some improve while others decline. • Crystallized intelligence (judgment and accumulated knowledge ) often increase. • The ability to reason peaks. • Middle adults tend to forget episodic (day to day things like where the car keys are) memories and remember semantic memories (like how to change a tire). • Adults can continue to improve their language, memory and reasoning skills. • According to Kohlberg, middle age adults are in the final stage of moral development called postconventional morality. • Middle-aged adults become more interested in establishing and living by their personal values. Signs of Socio-emotional Change • Most have lived through many life changes. • Maturity is the ability to adapt to the inevitable changes that happen in life. • Erikson called this stage of socio-emotional development the generativity versus stagnation (how to leave legacies). Biological involves raising children. Parental is giving back to future generations by participating in children’s lives. Work involves passing on work knowledge and cultural includes communicating values to larger society. • The sandwich generation is when middle aged adults are caring for their parents and their children at the same time. • When children leave home, the household is an empty nest. • Parents often become grandparents during middle adult years. Signs of Socio-emotional Change/Special Needs • Supportive relationships are healthy relationships that include give-and-take between those involved. • People often question whether they want to continue in their chosen career. • Leisure activities help to define self-identity outside of career or family. • Retirement is often on their minds. • ____________________________________________ • Special needs can develop as a result of aging.