Vegetables

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Transcript Vegetables

Vegetables
Chapter 29
What is a vegetable?
• Add flavor, color, and texture to meals
• Contribute significantly to health
• What is your favorite vegetable?
Nutrients in vegetables
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Vitamin C
Folic Acid
Vitamin K
Calcium
Magnesium
Vegetables are a good source of fiber,
carbohydrates, and phytochemicals
Phytochemicals
• Lower your risk of some cancers and heart
disease
▫ Lycopene- found in tomatoes
▫ Beta Carotene- found in carrots
Types of vegetables
• Flowers
▫ Broccoli and Cauliflower
▫ Tender and can be eater raw or cooked
• Fruits
▫ Tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, squash, eggplant
▫ Can be eaten raw or cooked
• Seeds
▫ Plant part that grows new plants
▫ Beans, corn, and peas
Types of Vegetables
• Stems
▫ Celery and asparagus
▫ Need minimal cooking, can be eaten raw
• Leaves
▫ Cabbage, lettuce, brussel sprouts, and spinach
▫ Minimal cooking, can be eaten raw
• Roots
▫ Roots store a plants food supply
▫ Carrots, turnips, and radishes
Types of Vegetables
• Tubers
▫ Large underground stem that store nutrients
▫ Potatoes
• Bulbs
▫ Layers of fleshy leaves surrounding the
underground part of the stem
▫ Onions and garlic
Buying Fresh Vegetables
• Ripeness- Vegetables are harvested ripe, most
last 2-5 days although root vegetables last
several weeks
• Color and Texture- Select bright
characteristic color and crisp texture- avoid
potatoes that have green color
▫ Solanine- a bitter, toxic compound
• Shape- Typical for vegetables- misshapen have
inferior texture and flavor
Buying Fresh Vegetables
• Size- Should feel heavy in relation to its size
• Condition- Aviod wilted, damaged, or decayed
vegetables
▫ Have lost nutrients and will not last long
Storing Fresh Vegetables
• Potatoes- Cool, dark, dry place (separate from
onions)
• Onions- cool, dry area in a basket or loosely woven
bag
▫ Become moldy in refrigerator or plastic bags
▫ If stored with potatoes, onions will absorb the
moisture from the potatoes and become moldy. The
potatoes will sprout faster
• Other Vegetables- refrigerator in airtight containers
or plastic bags in the refrigerator crisper
Washing and Serving Fresh Vegetables
• Wash all fresh vegetables thoroughly to remove
dirt and harmful bacteria (even before you peel)
• Scrub root vegetables with a stiff brush. Don’t
soak or use detergents
• Raw vegetables can be served in salads, as a
snack, or as crudités, sliced or small vegetables
served with a dip
Cooking Fresh Vegetables
• Many must be cooked to make them edible and
easy to digest
• Method you choose and length of cooking time
depends on the vegetable, its tenderness, the size
of the pieces, and your own taste preference
Convenience Forms of vegetables
• Canned
▫ Canned whole, sliced, or in pieces
▫ Already cooked during canning process
• Frozen
▫ Closest in nutrients, color, and texture to fresh vegetables
▫ Take less time to cook than fresh vegetables because they
are pre-heated prior to freezing
• Dried
▫ Mushrooms, tomatoes, and potatoes are vegetables that can
be dehydrated and late reconstituted for use in recipes
▫ Dried vegetables can be restored to their former condition
by adding water
Cooking Vegetables
• Read pages 459-460 in your textbook, the
section labeled “Cooking Vegetables.” Describe
what happens to the following:
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Nutrients
Color
Flavor
Texture and Shape
• Choose 1 of the following cooking methods on
pages 460-462 to discuss in your notes in
further detail.
How Cooking Affects Vegetables
• Cook most vegetables for a short time in a small
amount of water
▫ Nutrients- some are dissolved in cooking water or are
destroyed by heat- vitamin C is water soluble and heat
sensitive- Vitamin B is lost in water
▫ Texture- Heat softens the cellulose but overcooking
makes them mushy
▫ Color- Properly cooked vegetables remain colorful.
Green vegetables turn olive if overcooked
▫ Flavor- cooking releases flavors, making vegetables
taste more mellow and delicious- overcooked
vegetables lose their flavor or may develop an
unpleasant flavor