video slide - Warren County Public Schools

download report

Transcript video slide - Warren County Public Schools

Chapter 30
Plant Diversity II: The
Evolution of Seed Plants
PowerPoint® Lecture Presentations for
Biology
Eighth Edition
Neil Campbell and Jane Reece
Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Overview: Transforming the World
(Common to all seed plants)
• Seed - embryo and nutrients surrounded by a protective coat
• Reduced gametophytes - develop within the walls of spores &
retained within tissues of the parent sporophyte
• Heterospory (male and female parts)
• Ovules - consists of a megasporangium, megaspore, and one or
more protective integuments (Gymnosperm have 1; Angiosperm
have 2)
• Pollen - Pollen grains contain the male gametophytes. If a pollen
grain germinates, it gives rise to a pollen tube that discharges two
sperm into the female gametophyte within the ovule
• Pollination - transfer of pollen to the part of a seed plant
containing the ovules
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Fig. 30-UN3
Five Derived Traits of Seed Plants
Reduced
gametophytes
Heterospory
Microscopic male and
female gametophytes
(n) are nourished and
protected by the
sporophyte (2n)
Male
gametophyte
Female
gametophyte
Microspore (gives rise to
a male gametophyte)
Megaspore (gives rise to
a female gametophyte)
Ovules
Integument (2n)
Ovule
(gymnosperm)
Megaspore (2n)
Megasporangium (2n)
Pollen
Pollen grains make water
unnecessary for fertilization
Seeds
Seeds: survive
better than
unprotected
spores, can be
transported
long distances
Integument
Food supply
Embryo
Fig. 30-2
PLANT GROUP
Mosses and other
nonvascular plants
Gametophyte Dominant
Sporophyte
Ferns and other seedless
vascular plants
Seed plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms)
Reduced, independent
(photosynthetic and
free-living)
Reduced (usually microscopic), dependent on surrounding
sporophyte tissue for nutrition
Reduced, dependent on
Dominant
gametophyte for nutrition
Dominant
Gymnosperm
Sporophyte
(2n)
Microscopic female
gametophytes (n) inside
ovulate cone
Sporophyte
(2n)
Gametophyte
(n)
Angiosperm
Microscopic
female
gametophytes
(n) inside
these parts
of flowers
Example
Microscopic male
gametophytes (n)
inside pollen
cone
Sporophyte (2n)
Gametophyte
(n)
Microscopic
male
gametophytes
(n) inside
these parts
of flowers
Sporophyte (2n)
The Evolutionary Advantage of Seeds
• develops from the whole ovule
• is a sporophyte embryo, along with its food
supply, packaged in a protective coat
• Seeds provide some evolutionary advantages
over spores:
– They may remain dormant for days to years,
until conditions are favorable for germination
– They may be transported long distances by
wind or animals
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Fig. 30-3-4 From ovule to seed in a gymnosperm
Integument
Female
gametophyte (n)
Seed coat
(derived from
integument)
Spore wall
Egg nucleus (n)
Immature
female cone
Megasporangium
(2n)
Megaspore (n)
(a) Unfertilized ovule
Male gametophyte
(within a germinated
pollen grain) (n)
Micropyle
(b) Fertilized ovule
Food supply
(female
gametophyte
tissue) (n)
Discharged
sperm nucleus (n)
Pollen grain (n)
Embryo (2n)
(new sporophyte)
(c) Gymnosperm seed
Concept 30.2: Gymnosperms bear “naked” seeds,
typically on cones
• The gymnosperms have “naked” seeds not
enclosed by ovaries and consist of four phyla:
– Cycadophyta (cycads)
– Gingkophyta (one living species: Ginkgo biloba)
– Gnetophyta (three genera: Gnetum, Ephedra,
Welwitschia)
– Coniferophyta (conifers, such as pine, fir, and
redwood)
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Phylum Cycadophyta
• Large cones and palmlike leaves. These
thrived during the Mesozoic, but relatively few
species exist today.
Phylum Ginkgophyta
•This phylum consists of a single living species,
Ginkgo biloba
•It has a high tolerance to air pollution and is a
popular ornamental tree
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Phylum Gnetophyta (3 genera)
• Species vary in appearance, and some are
tropical whereas others live in deserts
Phylum Coniferophyta
• Largest of the gymnosperm phyla
• Most conifers are evergreens and can carry out
photosynthesis year round
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
The Life Cycle of a Pine: A Closer Look
• Three key features of the gymnosperm life cycle are:
– Dominance of the sporophyte generation
– Development of seeds from fertilized ovules
– The transfer of sperm to ovules by pollen
• The pine tree is the sporophyte and produces sporangia in
male and female cones
• Small cones produce microspores called pollen grains, each of
which contains a male gametophyte
• The familiar larger cones contain ovules, which produce
megaspores that develop into female gametophytes
• It takes nearly three years from cone production to mature seed
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Fig. 30-6-4
Key
Haploid (n)
Diploid (2n)
Ovule
Ovulate
cone
Pollen
cone
Megasporocyte (2n)
Integument
Microsporocytes
(2n)
Megasporangium
Pollen (2n)
Pollen grain
grains (n) MEIOSIS
MEIOSIS
Mature
sporophyte
(2n)
Microsporangia
Microsporangium (2n)
Seedling
Archegonium
Female
gametophyte
Seeds
Food
reserves
(n)
Seed coat
(2n)
Embryo
(2n)
Sperm
nucleus (n)
Pollen
tube
FERTILIZATION
Egg nucleus (n)
Surviving
megaspore (n)
Characteristics of Angiosperms
• All angiosperms are classified in a single phylum, Anthophyta
(Greek anthos, flower)
• Flower - angiosperm structure specialized for sexual
reproduction
• A flower is a specialized shoot with up to four types of
modified leaves:
– Sepals - enclose the flower
– Petals - brightly colored & attract pollinators
– Stamens - produce pollen on terminal anthers
– Carpels - produce ovules (ovary at the base and a style
leading up to a stigma, where pollen is received)
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Fig. 30-7
Stigma
Stamen
Anther
Carpel
Style
Filament
Ovary
Petal
Sepal
Ovule
Fruits
• Fruit - typically consists of a mature ovary but
can also include other flower parts
– protect seeds & aid in dispersal
– can be either fleshy or dry
– adaptations help disperse seeds(wind,
water, or animals)
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Tomato
Ruby grapefruit
Fig. 30-8 Some
variations in
fruit structure
Nectarine
Hazelnut
Milkweed
Fig. 30- 9 Fruit
adaptations
that enhance
seed dispersal
Wings
Seeds within berries
Barbs
The Angiosperm Life Cycle
• The flower of the sporophyte is composed of both
male and female structures
• Male gametophytes are contained within pollen
grains produced by the microsporangia of anthers
• The female gametophyte, or embryo sac,
develops within an ovule contained within an
ovary at the base of a stigma
• Most flowers have mechanisms to ensure crosspollination btwn flowers from different plants of
the same species
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
• A pollen grain that has landed on a stigma germinates and the
pollen tube of the male gametophyte grows down to the ovary
• Micropyle – pore in the ovule
• Double fertilization - pollen tube discharges two sperm into
the female gametophyte within an ovule
•
One sperm fertilizes the egg
•
the other combines with two nuclei in the central cell of the
female gametophyte and initiates development of foodstoring endosperm
• Within a seed, the embryo consists of a root and two seed
leaves called cotyledons
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Fig. 30-10-4
Key
Haploid (n)
Diploid (2n)
Mature flower on
sporophyte plant
(2n)
Microsporangium
Microsporocytes (2n)
Anther
MEIOSIS
Ovule (2n) Microspore
(n)
Ovary
Germinating
seed
MEIOSIS
Megasporangium
(2n)
Embryo (2n)
Endosperm (3n)
Seed
Seed coat (2n)
Nucleus of
developing
endosperm
(3n)
Male gametophyte
(in pollen grain)
Pollen
(n)
grains
Stigma
Pollen
tube
Megaspore
(n)
Antipodal cells
Female gametophyte Central cell
(embryo sac)
Synergids
Egg (n)
Generative cell
Tube cell
Sperm
Style
Pollen
tube
Sperm
(n)
FERTILIZATION
Zygote (2n)
Egg
nucleus (n)
Discharged sperm nuclei (n)
Angiosperm Diversity
• The two main groups of angiosperms are monocots
(one cotyledon) and eudicots (“true” dicots)
• Basal angiosperms - less derived and include the
flowering plants belonging to the oldest lineages (Eg.
Amborella trichopoda, water lilies, and star anise)
• Magnoliids - share some traits with basal
angiosperms but are more closely related to
monocots and eudicots (Eg. magnolias, laurels, and
black pepper plants)
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Fig. 30-13n
Angiosperm
diversity
Monocot
Characteristics
Eudicot
Characteristics
Embryos
Two cotyledons
One cotyledon
Leaf
venation
Veins usually
parallel
Veins usually
netlike
Stems
Vascular tissue
scattered
Vascular tissue
usually arranged
in ring
Fig. 30-13o
Angiosperm
diversity
Monocot
Characteristics
Eudicot
Characteristics
Roots
Taproot (main root)
usually present
Root system
usually fibrous
(no main root)
Pollen
Pollen grain with
one opening
Pollen grain with
three openings
Flowers
Floral organs
usually in
multiples of three
Floral organs usually
in multiples of
four or five
Evolutionary Links Between Angiosperms and Animals
• Pollination of flowers and transport of seeds by
animals are two important relationships in
terrestrial ecosystems
• Clades with bilaterally symmetrical flowers
have more species than those with radially
symmetrical flowers
• This is likely because bilateral symmetry
affects the movement of pollinators and
reduces gene flow in diverging populations
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings