2.7 billion years ago, microbes invented
split to get H needed to turn CO2 into
sugars, O2 left behind
All the iron on the surface rusted
Organisms adapted to new world
could get bigger; more efficient
Bigger, more complicated cells than
Multicellular organisms developed
Four kingdoms of eukaryotes currently
Fungi, the champion decomposers
Familiar terms: what do they mean exactly?
Molds: types of fungi that grow as long
threads or filaments.
Yeasts: another way fungi can look; oval,
unicellular in appearance.
they reproduce, they look different.
fungi can grow as yeasts or molds.
Mushrooms: these are reproductive
structures of certain types of fungi.
How do Fungi grow?
Fungi are heterotrophs
are the great decomposers, break down
all kinds of polymers. Can destroy wood,
rubber, paint, all types of things.
They are never photosynthetic!
Fungi grow into, through their food.
release enzymes that break things down
They take up resulting small molecules
They grow at the tips and penetrate.
Fungi and plants
Some fungi are parasites
plant diseases are caused by fungi
Fusarium, for example
Many fungi grow along with plants
(fungi) rrhizae (roots) = mycorrhizae
Fungi growing with plant roots help furnish the
plant with minerals from the soil
Plants leak nutrients to feed fungi
Fungi and humans
As decomposers, important in ecosystem
Some cause disease
foot, yeast infections, histoplasmosis
Serious infections with diseases like AIDS
Source of important antibiotics
is a fungus
Important in food and other industries
acid, soy sauce, cheeses, mushrooms
How are they classified?
Once again, it’s about sex.
Three main types of fungi
two different mating types get together,
they make sexual spores
The type of structure the spores are found in
determines the type of fungus
Mushroom is a type of spore-bearing structure
Fungi also reproduce asexually too
make lots of spores this way, but not
involved in classification
Sexual reproductive structures that
Protista: one kingdom, or 8?
The Protists are unicellular eukaryotes
For “pond scum” they show incredible
were always lumped together by what
New schemes suggest grouping them into 8
or more different KINGDOMS
As different from each other as they are from
plants and animals.
Is there an easy way to learn about
Here’s one. Divide them into 3 groups:
Diatomaceous earth = fossilized
diatoms: abrasives and slug
brown, yellow algae
Seaweed, source of agar
Neurotoxins and red tide
Capable of ingesting their food.
Capable of moving around
with flagella or cilia
Disease-causing protists belong
to this group
by flagella (fungi aren’t.)
Phytophora infestans, cause of
Irish potato blight
blob”, one giant cell or groups
of cells that crawl over the ground
Digest everything in their path
The Kingdom Plantae
Plants are highly successful
Photosynthetic, use sunlight energy and
need minerals to grow
The world of Plants
The most abundant and successful type of
plant are flowering plants, the Angiosperms.
There’s actually 9 other completely different
types of plants.
(most evergreens w/ needles)
Examples: most primitive to most
seeds, in cones
What have angiosperms got that
makes them good?
Specialized structures for pulling water out
of dry ground: roots
Specialized structures for exchanging
gases with the atmosphere and collecting
Structures for holding the leaves up where
they can do these things: shoots
pollinators that spread male gametes
(pollen, from anthers) to female gametes
Provide a protective place for embryo (within
seeds) to form.
Seeds are within or attached to fruit.
is a mechanism for dispersal of seed
Some is eaten and excreted elsewhere
Some sticks and is carried about
Some blow, some float, many strategies