Transcript Slide 1

Plant Kingdom Notes
1. Characteristics of Plant Kingdom
A. Multicellular (Many-celled)
B. Eukaryotic (Has a Distinct Nucleus)
C. Autotroph (Makes its own food)
D. Cell wall made of cellulose (Good fiber for our diet)
2. Benefits of Plants
A. Oxygen
B. Food
C. Shelter
D. Paper
E. Medicine
F. Clothing
G. Fiber in our diet
H. Fossil Fuels
3. What plants need to survive:
A. Sunlight—plants have adaptations to
gather sunlight for photosynthesis
B. Water and minerals—all cells require
a constant supply of water. Minerals
are absorbed along with water.
C. Gas exchange—plants must exchange
gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) to
perform photosynthesis
D. Movement of water and nutrients—
plants take up water and minerals
with their roots, but make food in
their leaves.
A. Roots—are used for:
a) Absorption of minerals by active
transport and water by osmosis.
b) Storage of starches
c) Anchor to ground
d) 2 main types of roots:
• taproot—grow long and deep to reach
water below the surface.
Ex. Carrots, radishes
• fibrous—branched root system that
grows close to the surface helps prevent
soil from being washed away by rain.
e) Plants can have taproots, fibrous roots or both.
B. Stems—are used for water transportation (vascular plants)
a) xylem—used to transport
water UP from roots
b) phloem—used to transport food
produced by photosynthesis
• Exceptions- nonvascular plants
• Mosses- no transportation system;
therefore, they are small and close to
the ground
•Stems produce leaves, branches and
C. Leaves
a) Absorb light and carry out photosynthesis
b) Photosynthetic Equation:
Light Energy
6CO2 + 6H2O
C6H12O6 + 6O2
c) Special structures
• Cuticle—waxy covering on surface to prevent water loss
• Stomata—opening in leaf to allow exchange of O2, CO2
and water vapor
• Guard cell—regulates opening of the stomata and
respond to conditions in the environment (wind,
temperature) to maintain homeostasis within leaf.
Cross Section of a Leaf
Transpiration – loss of water through stomata
•When water is abundant, it flows from roots to leaves and guard
cells respond by opening stomata to release excess water
•When water is scarce, guard cells respond by closing stomata to
limit transpiration
D. Reproduction
a) Flowers—contain the male and female sexual organs
b) Cones—sexual, male and female cones
c) Spores—asexual
E. Seed—fertilized egg
a) Fruit—mature ovary that contains one or more seeds
ex. Apples, grapes, cucumbers, tomatoes
5. Plant Responses to external factors—Tropisms
A. Gravitropism—response to gravity
Plants grow upwards out of the soil and
the roots grow down
B. Phototropism—response to light
Plants grow towards a light source
C. Thigmotropism—response to touch
Plants that close up when touched
Example: Climbing plants or vines that
twist around any object they touch
D. Photoperiodism – controls timing of
flowering and seasonal growth
• Plant hormones – chemical substances that
control cell division, development and
response to the environment.
Plant Adaptations for Survival and Reproduction
1. Adaptations—an inherited characteristic
that increases an organism’s
ability to survive and
A. How do adaptations occur?
a) Mutations—sudden changes in the
genetic code (DNA).
b) KEY POINT: Beneficial mutations
allow organisms the
ability to adapt and
therefore, survive and
2. Adaptations for Survival
A. Different environments:
a) Desert plants—able to tolerate strong winds, daytime heat,
and infrequent rainfall.
• Plants grow slowly
• Plants have a deep root system to gather
• Plants have thick stems to store large
amounts of water
• Plants have spines instead of large leaves
to limit transpiration
Example: Cactus
b) Arctic Tundra
• Plants are low growing and small due to lack of nutrients
B. Carnivorous Plants—have specialized features for
obtaining nutrition
a) Pitcher Plant
b) Venus Fly Trap
C. Defense Mechanisms
a) Poisons—lethal when eaten
b) Chemicals that act as insect hormones—disrupt
normal growth and development
c) Thorns/thistles—undesirable or hard to eat
D. Leaf Adaptations—needle-like versus broad leaf
a) needle like leaves – better at retaining moisture in dry (arid) climates.
b) Broad leaves – better at absorbing sunlight in shady areas.
3. Adaptations for Reproduction
A. Pollination—produces seeds by the transfer of pollen from
male reproductive structure to female
reproductive structure
a) Carried out by animals (mainly insects and birds) that carry
pollen from one flower to another
• Animals are attracted by bright colors, smell and nectar
b) Wind pollination—less efficient, relies on large numbers of
B. Seed Dispersal
a) Animal Dispersal
• Fruits—provide nutrition
for animals and helps plants
spread seeds
• Burrs—get snagged on fur;
carry seeds from one area to
b) Wind and Water Dispersal—
lightweight seeds carried in
the air or float on surface of