Environment - Glen Ellyn School District 41

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Transcript Environment - Glen Ellyn School District 41

Environment
• The physical
surroundings of
an organism,
including all the
conditions and
circumstances
that affect its
development.
Interaction
• a relationship between parts of the
environment.
Biotic Factors
• the parts of the
environment that
are living or
were once alive.
• Examples- dog,
bone, rotting log
Abiotic Factors
• the parts of the
environment that
are nonliving
• Examples: air,
temperature,
water, light, sand
Niche
• The role an
organism plays
in its
environment.
Its relationship
with other
organisms and
with its
physical
surroundings.
Habitat
• The place where an organism lives.
• A group of
organisms and
their physical
environment
• All abiotic
and biotic
factors that
found a
location
suitable to
make or find
their habitat
Ecosystem
Freshwater Ecosystem
TRIVIA: What would be an abiotic factor in this
ecosystem?
Symbiosis
• a kind of partnership between two
organisms in nature.
Commensalism
• a symbiotic
relationship
between two
organisms in
which one
benefits and the
other neither
benefits nor is
harmed.
Mutualism
• a symbiotic
relationship
between two
organisms in which
both benefit.
Mutualism between ants, a caterpillar, and a flower in the
American southwest. The caterpillar has a nectar organ
which the ants drink from, the flower survives from the
feeding caterpillar, and the ants provide protection for
both the plant and the caterpillar.
Parasitism
• a symbiotic
relationship in
which one
benefits(the
parasite) and lives
in or on another (the
host, which is
harmed) and takes
nutrients.
Symbiosis
Commensalism
Mutualism
Parasitism
Photosynthesis
• The process of using sunlight, water, and
carbon dioxide to make food (glucose).
Green plants do this.
Products
Producers
• Organisms
that
produce
food for
themselves
and others.
Consumers
• Organisms that depend on other
organisms for food.
Herbivores
• Consumers of only plants.
Carnivores
• Consumers of only meat.
Omnivores
• Consumers that eat
plants and animals.
Predator
• PredatorA consumer
that hunts
or captures
other
organisms
(prey) for
food.
Prey
• an organism that is hunted or
captured and eaten by another
consumer.
Prey
Scavenger
• Scavenger- A consumer
of dead or decaying
plants and animals.
Decomposer
Bacteria and fungi that break down dead and decaying
plant and animal matter and enrich the soil.
Population
• All organisms of the same species living
in the same area.
Community
• All the
populations
of species
living in an
area.
Food chain
• A diagram showing how certain living
things depend on one another for energy.
Gives
energy to…
Gives energy to…
Gives
energy to…
Gives
energy to…
Gives energy to…
These ARE food chains:
Grass  Cow  Human
Acorn  Squirrel
Plant plankton  Whale
Dead leaves  Worm  Robin  Hawk
Tree buds  Deer  Cougar
These are NOT food chains:
Sun  Daisy  Butterfly  Frog
Water  Algae  Fish  Turtle
Plankton  DDT  Fish  Eagle
Algae  Minnow  Bass  Plastic
fishing lure
• Corn  Mouse  Snake  Water
•
•
•
•
Food Chain Rule #1
Food chains only contain
biotic factors.
SUN
WATER
PESTICIDES
NON_LIVING
THINGS
These are food chains:
•Grass  Cow  Human
•Acorn  Squirrel
•Plant plankton  Whale
•Dead leaves  Worm  Robin
 Hawk
•Tree buds  Deer  Cougar
These are NOT food chains:
• Cow  Grass  Human
• Squirrel Acorn
• Whale  Plant plankton
• Worm  Dead leaves  Robin  Hawk
• Deer  Tree buds  Cougar
Food Chain Rule #2
Food chains must start with a
producer.
Examples of Producers
•These ARE food chains:
•Grass  Cow  Human
•Acorn  Squirrel
•Plant plankton  Whale
•Dead leaves  Worm 
Robin  Hawk
•Tree buds  Deer  Cougar
These are NOT food chains:
• Grass  Cow  Human
• Acorn  Squirrel
• Plant plankton  Whale
• Dead leaves  Worm Robin  Hawk
• Tree buds  Deer  Cougar
• Remember  means “gives energy to…”
Food Chain Rule #3
Food chains have arrows that go from
left to right. It shows the food
“jumping” into the other organism’s
mouth.
TOP OF FOOD
CHAIN
SECONDARY
CONSUMER
PRIMARY
CONSUMER
PRIMARY
PRODUCER
Food web
• A diagram
showing as
many food
relationships
as possible
between living
things in an
area.
Succession
• Changes in an
area that cause
one group of
organisms to be
replaced by
another.
All rebuilt→
climax
community
Succession
All rebuilt→
climax community