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Propagating Plants
Asexually
Reminder: student learning activities are at the end of
this power point.
NEXT GENERATION/COMMON CORE STANDARDS ADDRESSED!
 MS‐LS1‐1. Conduct an investigation to provide evidence that living things are
made of cells; either one cell or many different numbers and types of cells.
[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on developing evidence that living things
are made of cells, distinguishing between living and non-living cells, and
understanding that living things may be made of one cell or many and varied
cells.]
 MS‐LS1‐7 Develop a model to describe how food is rearranged through
chemical reactions forming new molecules that support growth and/or release
energy as this matter moves through an organism. [Clarification Statement:
Emphasis is on describing that molecules are broken apart and put back
together and that in this process, energy is released.] [Assessment Boundary:
Assessment does not include details of the chemical reactions for
photosynthesis or respiration.]
 RST.6‐8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and
technical texts. (MS-LS2-2)
AGRICULTURE, FOOD AND NATURAL RESOURCE
STANDARDS ADDRESSED!
 PS.03. Propagate, culture and harvest plants and plant products based on
current industry standards.
 PS.03.01. Demonstrate plant propagation techniques in plant system activities.
Sample Measurement: The following sample measurement strands are
provided to guide the development of measurable activities (at different
levels of proficiency) to assess students’ attainment of knowledge and skills
related to the above performance indicator. The topics represented by each
strand are not all-encompassing.
 PS.03.01.03.a. Summarize optimal conditions for asexual propagation and demonstrate
techniques used to propagate plants by cuttings, division, separation, layering, budding and
grafting.
BELL WORK!
 Discuss and identify the various methods of stem cutting propagation.
 Discuss the methods of leaf and leaf-bud cutting.
 Describe the various types of growing media used for cuttings.
 Describe grafting and identify three common methods.
 Explain layering and the difference between separation and division in
plant propagation.
 Explain tissue culture.
 Explain asexual propagation.
TERMS
Air layering
Asexual
propagation
Bark graft
Budding
Callus
Cleft graft
Clone
Division
Explants
Grafting
Hardwood cuttings
Layering
Leaf cutting
INTEREST APPROACH
Have you ever seen seeds from plants,
such as the African violet, jade, or aloe
vera for sale in a garden center or seed
catalog?
No, these plants are propagated
asexually, without seeds.
Have any of you ever propagated any
of these plants at home. If so, how did
you propagate them.
STUDENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES
 Discuss and identify the various methods of stem cutting
propagation.
 Discuss the methods of leaf and leaf-bud cuttings.
 Describe the various types of growing media used for cuttings.
 Describe grafting and identify three common methods.
 Explain layering and the difference between separation and division
in plant propagation.
 Explain tissue culture.
 Explain asexual propagation.
PLANT PROPAGATION
Plants may be reproduced sexually (with seeds) or
asexually (without seeds).
In traditional agriculture, sexual reproduction is the
dominant method of producing new plants.
In horticulture, both sexual and asexual
reproduction are common methods of producing
new plants.
ASEXUAL REPORODUCTION
Asexual propagation is the reproduction of new plants
from stems, leaves, or roots of a parent plant.
Portions of parent plants are used to make new plants.
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
 Asexual propagation allows one to:
produce more plants faster.
propagate plants that do not produce viable
seeds.
produce plants that are identical to the parent
plant.
A plant that is identical to the parent plant is
known as a clone.
STEM CUTTING PROPAGATION
A stem cutting is when a portion of the
stem that contains a terminal bud or lateral
buds is cut and placed in growing media to
produce roots.
THREE BASIC TYPES OF STEM
CUTTINGS:
Softwood cuttings - from soft, succulent
growth.
Hardwood cuttings - from one-year-old
growth, deciduous, or evergreen plants.
Semi-hardwood cuttings - from woody
broad-leaved plants with new shoots.
LEAF CUTTINGS
A leaf cutting consists of only a leaf blade
or leaf blade with petiole attached.
In the case of the leaf blade, the primary
veins are cut and the blade is laid flat on
top of the growing media.
The leaf is pinned down, new plants will
form at the point where the veins were
cut.
LEAF CUTTINGS W/ PETIOLE
In the case of the leaf blade with petiole, the
petiole is inserted into the growing media.
Eventually, roots will form at the end of the petiole
and new shoots will emerge from the base of the
petiole.
LEAF-BUD CUTTING
These are made from plant material having well
developed buds and healthy, actively growing
leaves.
The stem is treated with a rooting hormone and
inserted into the growing medium with the
lateral bud just below the medium surface
The new plant will develop from the lateral bud.
GROWING MEDIA FOR CUTTINGS
The type of growing medium used for rooting
cuttings varies depending on the type of cutting
and the cultural practices used.
The media needs to hold moisture, provide good
aeration and drainage, and be free from diseases
and weed seeds.
COMMON GROWING MEDIA
Peat moss and perlite mixture - good moisture
retention, yet provides good aeration.
Vermiculite - good moisture retention.
Sand - provides good aeration.
Sand and peat moss mixture - good mix of
moisture retention and aeration.
GRAFTING
Grafting is the process of connecting two plants
or plant parts together so they will unite and
grow as one.
Plant that have been grafted consist of:
The scion, which is a short piece of stem with two or
more buds.
The understock (rootstock), which is the lower
portion of the graft containing the root system.
3 COMMON GRAFTING METHODS
Whip-and-tongue graft - joins small scion and
rootstock together (usuallyunder 1 inch in
diameter).
Cleft graft - joins small scion to larger rootstook;
usually done in winter.
Bark Graft - similar to cleft graft except done in
early spring when bark easily separates from
wood.
BUDDING
Is similar to grafting except that the scion is
reduced to a single bud.
There are two common methods of budding:
T-Budding - taking buds from one plant and
inserting them under bark or rootstock.
Patch budding - bud is “patched” onto stem
when the bark is thick.
LAYERING
Layering is a method of asexual propagation
where roots are formed on a stem while it is
still attached to the parent plant.
TYPES OF LAYERING
Simple layering - branches are bent to the ground
and portions of branches are covered with soil.
The terminal ends are left exposed.
The covered portion must have a bud or buds and
must be injured - roots should form in this area.
TYPES OF LAYERING
Air layering - this type removes a portion of the bark on the
stem and covers it with moistened sphagnum moss.
It is then covered with plastic to prevent it from drying out;
roots should form in this area.
SEPARATION AND DIVISION
Some plants produce vegetative structures
which can be separated or divided from the
parent plant as a natural means of
reproducing.
SEPARATION
Method in which natural structures are removed
from the parent plant and planted to grow.
DIVISION
Method in which parts of plants are cut
into sections that will grow naturally into
new plants.
Plant structures that can be separated or
divided include:
bulbs
corms
rhizomes and tubers
plant crowns
TISSUE CULTURE
Tissue culture, also known as
micropropagation, is the most recent
method of asexual propagation.
TISSUE CULTURE
Method of growing pieces of plants, called
explants, on an artificial medium under
sterile conditions.
The explant forms a callus, an
undifferentiated mass of cells.
TISSUE CULTURE CONTINUED
Using certain media, the callus produces roots,
shoots, and other differentiated cells.
This new plant has tiny leaves, stems, and roots
that have not yet developed into normal-sized
parts, and is called a plantlet.
TISSUE CULTURE CONTINUED
Tissue culture is common in research
and commercial production.
It requires special equipment and
facilities and highly trained technicians.
Tissue culture must be performed in
sterile conditions.
TISSUE CULTURE CONTINUED
Tissue culture allows production
of a large number of plants from a
small amount of parent plants, in a
short period of time.
REVIEW / SUMMARY
What is asexual propagation?
What are the methods of stem cutting
propagation?
How are plants propagated using leaf and leafbud cuttings.
Describe the various types of growing media
used for cuttings.
REVIEW / SUMMARY
Describe grafting, what are the three methods?
Describe the difference between separation
and division in plant propagation.
Explain tissue culture.
THE END!
NEXT:
Student Learning Activities
STUDENT LEARNING ACTIVITIES
 Sample tests are available in the Lesson Plan tab.
HOW CAN YOU GROW A POTATO PLANT
WITHOUT A SEED?
 The materials needed for this experiment
are: five potatoes each one a different size
and or kind, three or four tooth picks for
each potato, one clear plastic cup for each
potato for each group.
 Have students split in to groups, give each
group all of the materials needed.
Students need to put the tooth picks in
the potatoes, so that the potato will
balance on the rim of the cup as shown in
the pictures to the right. They then need
to fill the cup with water. Have students
write down their observations in the lab
sheet on the next slide. Have students
check on their potatoes and record their
observations for two weeks. At the end of
the two weeks have students write a lab
report on this activity.
You observe when you use your senses to gather information. You infer when, based
on observations or past experiences, you make an evaluation or judgment. You predict
when infer an expected future result.
Name: _____________________________
When your group has finished setting up your potatoes for observation, fill out this lab
sheet. Be sure to answer all of the question.
Day 14 – Date
_____________
Day 7 – Date
______________
Day 1 – Date
____________
Observe and draw what you see.
Infer what has happened and
describe what you see in words.
Predict what will happen at your
next observation.
Name: ___________________________________
Sample Asexual reproduction
Fill in each of the boxes bellow with a definition of the word or words above each box.
Asexual Reproduction
Grafting
Leaf cutting
Tissue Culture
Layering
Separation and
division
Leaf- bud cutting
Budding
Stem cutting
KEY