prevalenc of overweight and obesity in a national sample of south

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Transcript prevalenc of overweight and obesity in a national sample of south

The meaning of food and the contexts
in which food is used: Experiences from
a population residing in a black
township in South Africa.
RESEARCHERS
Thandi Puoane, Princess Mantwa,
Krisela Steyn, Debra Jackson,
MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY
In South Africa a complex picture
relating to nutritional status of the
population exist
 Under nutrition in children and obesity
in adults
 Obesity is increasingly becoming a
serious public health problem among
black women in South Africa.

MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY

In 1998 35.7% of African urban women were
overweight (BMI 25-29.9) and obese (BMI >
30) respectively

With urbanisation, diet change to high fat and
low carbohydrate

Food plays an important role in the culture of
the black African population
MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY

Studies show that the more urbanised the
black communities the higher the rate of
obesity and the less prudent their diets
become.

Lacking in the literature is the information on
socio-cultural factors which influence eating
behaviours of the black African population
OBJECTIVES

To explore perceptions of black Africans
residing in a black township of Cape
Town about the meaning of food, since
understanding of the context in which
food is used will be the basis for
planning culturally sensitive intervention
for modifying eating behaviours.
METHODS
Qualitative, exploratory research
design
METHODS

Participants were part of the SACLA
study, a cross-sectional study designed
to collect information on the prevalence
and the risk factors for cardiovascular
diseases in a black township, South
Africa
METHODS



Purposive sampling to select 32 men
and women
6 participants for in-depth interviews
26 for focus group discussions
METHODS
Subjects were selected based on their
responses to the question “I eat
whenever food is available”
 9 men, 12 women who responded
positively, 11 women who responded
negatively

DATA COLLECTION
In-depth interviews with each of the
six participants
 Focus group discussions of 8-10
men and women grouped by sex
 “what does food mean to you, and for
what purposes is food used in your
family and in your community?

DATA ANALYSES
 Data was content analysed by 2
researchers

Themes that emerge were summarised
and illustrated with direct quotes from
the focus groups.
THE MEANING OF FOOD IN
RELATION TO HEALTH

“Food is important because it keeps us alive.
There are food with energy and vitamins and
body building food. Don’t eat only starch, you
must combine it with meat and vegetables”

“ If you do not eat body building foods you
become sick with diseases like tuberculosis
and malnutrition”
THE RELATIONSHIP OF FOOD TO
THE BODY

“ A person who eats well looks
fresh (plump) and happy”

“ A person who does not eat well
becomes thin and looks unhappy”
THE SOCIAL MEANING OF FOOD

Food is used in cultural events.
Traditionally, food consumption in these
ceremonies differs

“When there are bad news, we drink
black tea, meat is not consumed during
this time, it is usually cooked on the day
of burial”.
VALUES ATTACHED TO FOOD
Food shows love, acceptance and
humanity (ubuntu).
 “If you visit a person’s house and not given
food, you feel you are not welcomed”
 Eating large portions of food send a
message that one can afford to
maintain herself

VALUES ATTACHED TO FOOD

If food is available people should eat as much
as they can. Food is not measured.

People should share food with other people

“Meat consumption on a daily basis is
associated with a high socioeconomic status
HOW VALUES ABOUT FOOD HAVE
CHANGED

The food has lost its value due to adoption of
western culture

“In the real sense food is becoming less
important nowadays, look at this example
when the wife says, if we are not getting that
hi-fi set ,I would rather starve because the
stomach has no thank you, do you hear that”.
HOW VALUES ABOUT FOOD HAVE
CHANGED
Consumption of foods such as samp
(corn), beans, greens, and root plants is
associated with poverty.
 Once people move to the city, their
expenses increase, leaving them with
little money for food. They resort to
cheap unhealthy foods, such as tripe,
chicken skins, and pig’s feet.

CONCLUSIONS
This study shows that for effective
behaviour modification psychological,
and socio-cultural factors should also be
taken into consideration.
 This study provides us with useful
information, which can be used to
develop messages to influence behavior
modification.

RECOMMENDATIONS

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People should be taught that they do not
need to prove to other people that they can
afford by using food because this lead to
obesity-and CVD
Media should be encouraged to used recipes
which includes locally available foods
Budgeting skills should be taught in all
schools to children